Formation of Words

The Formation of Words has few rules which determine the nature of the words formed thus.

Words can be classified into four types as follows:

1. Primary Words.
2. Compound Words
3. Primary Derivatives
4. Secondary Derivatives

Now, let us see how each type of word is formed.

1. Primary Words:

Words which are not derived or compounded or developed from other words are called Primary Words.

They belong to the original stocks of the words.

Examples:

Most of the words in English language are only Primary Words.

Moon, sun, day, night, month, school, boy, girl, road, write, go sit, walk, net, dash, dot, book, pin, he, she, it etc…

A Primary Word may be of the type of noun, verb, adjective, pronoun, adverb etc…

The
Formation of Words has few rules which determine the nature of the words formed thus.

2. Compound Words:

The Compound Words are formed by joining two or more Primary Words.

Examples:

Moonlight, undertake, nevertheless, man-of-war, misunderstanding etc…

This way the Compound Words are formed.

A Compound Word may be of the type of noun, verb, adjective, pronoun, adverb, conjunction, preposition etc…

An addition to the beginning of a word is a
Prefix.
An addition to the end of word is a
Suffix.

Compound Words are the most part Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs

Now let us wee how the Compound Words of Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs are formed.

Compound Words-Nouns:

Compound Words-Nouns may be formed:

i. Noun + Noun:

Examples:

• Moonlight
• Armchair
• Postman
• Railway
• Shoemaker
• Windmill
• Teaspoon
• Haystack
• Ringleader
• Jailbird
• Horse-power
• Screwdriver
• Tax-payer
• Airman
• Manservant
• Fire-escape
• Chess-board

ii. Adjective + Noun:

Examples:

• Sweetheart
• Nobleman
• Shorthand
• Blackboard
• Quicksilver
• Stronghold
• Halfpenny

iii. Verb + Noun:

Examples:

• Spendthrift
• Makeshift
• Breakfast
• Telltale
• Pick-packet
• Cut-throat
• Daredevil
• Hangman
• Scarecrow

The
Formation of Words has few rules which determine the nature of the words formed thus. iv. Gerund + Noun:

Examples:

• Drawing-room
• Writing-desk
• Looking-glass
• Walking-stick
• Blotting-paper
• Stepping-stone
• Spelling-book

v. Adverb (or Preposition)+ Noun:

Examples:

• Outlaw
• Afternoon
• Forethought
• Foresight
• Overcoat
• Downfall
• Afternoon
• Bypass
• Inmate
• Inside

vi. Verb + Adverb:

Examples:

• Drawback
• Lock-up
• Go-between
• Die-hard
• Send-off

vii. Adverb + Verb:

Knowledge of Formation of words will help you form your own words.

Examples:

• Outset
• Upkeep
• Outcry
• Income
• Outcome

Compound Words-Adjectives:

i. Noun + Adjectives (or Participle):

Examples:

• Blood-red
• Sky-blue
• Snow-white
• Pitch-dark
• Breast-high
• Skin-deep
• Lifelong
• World-wide
• Headstrong
• Homesick
• Stone-blind
• Seasick
• Love-lorn
• Hand-made
• Bed-ridden
• Heart-broken
• Moth-eaten
• Note-worthy

Knowledge of Formation of words will help you form your own words.

ii. Adjective + Adjective:

Examples:

• Red-hot
• Blue-black
• White-hot
• Dull-grey
• Lukewarm

iii. Adverb + Participle:

Examples:

• Longsuffering
• Everlasting
• Never-ending
• Thorough-bred
• Well-deserved
• Outspoken
• Down-hearted
• Inborn
• Far-seen

iv. Noun + Verb:

• Waylay
• Backbite
• Typewrite
• Browbeat
• Earmark
v. Adjective + Verb:

Examples:

• Safeguard
• Whitewash
• Fulfill

vi. Adverb + Verb:

Examples:

• Overthrow
• Overtake
• Foretell
• Undertake
• Undergo
• Overhear
• Overdo
• Outbid
• Outdo
• Upset
• Ill-use

The
Formation of Words has few rules which determine the nature of the words formed thus.

NOTE:

In most Compound Words, it is the first word which modifies the meaning of the second word. The accent is placed upon the modifying word when the amalgamation is complete.When the two elements are only partially blended, a hyphen is put between the two words and the accent fall equally on both of them.

3. Primary Derivatives:

These words are formed by making some changes in the body of the Primary Words.

• Bond from bind
• Breach from break
• Wrong from wring

NOTE:

The most important class of words formed by internal changes consists of the past tenses of the Primary Words. Those past tense-words are not treated as Derivatives.

i. Formation of Nouns from Verbs:

Examples:

• Choice from choose
• Bliss from bless
• Chip from chop
• Breach from break
• Dole from deal
• Dike from dig
• Fleet from float
• Doom from deem
• Bier from bear
• Watch from wake
• Seat from sit
• Gap from gape
• Girth from gird
• Grief from grieve
• Woof from weave

ii. Formation of Nouns from Adjectives:

Examples:

• Dolt from dull
• Heat from hot
• Pride from proud

iii. Formation of Adjectives from Verbs:

Examples:

• Fleet from float
• Low from lie

iv. Formation of Adjectives from Nouns:

Examples:

• Milch from milk
• Wise from wit

v. Formation of Verbs from Nouns:

Examples:

• Bathe from bath
• Bleed from blood
• Believe from belief
• Breathe from breath
• Breed from brood
• Clothe from cloth
• Drip from drop
• Feed from food

The
Formation of Words has few rules which determine the nature of the words formed thus.

vi. Formation of Adjectives from Verbs:

Examples:

• Cool from chill
• Hale from heal

vii. Formation of Nouns from Verbs:

Examples:

• Gold from gild
• Grass from graze
• Half from halve
• Knot from knit
• Sale from sell
• Sooth from soothe
• Tale from tell
• Thief from thieve
• Wreath from wreathe

4. Secondary Derivatives:

Secondary derivatives of a word are formed by adding either a prefix or a suffix to the word.

An addition to the beginning of a word is a
Prefix.
An addition to the end of word is a
Suffix.

Examples:

• Income is a secondary derivative of the word ‘word’.
• Here the addition ‘in’ is a prefix.

• Undergo is a secondary derivative of the word ‘go’.
• Here the addition ‘under’ is a prefix.

• Friendship is a secondary derivative of the word friend.
• Here the addition ‘ship’ is a suffix.

• Darkness is a secondary derivative of the word ‘dark’.
• Here the addition ‘ness’ is a suffix.

There are many prefixes and suffixes.

The
Formation of Words has few rules which determine the nature of the words formed thus. The complete lists of PREFIXES and SUFFIXES are in other pages.


Go to the 'Advanced English Index' to continue



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