Grammar : Mood

MOOD is the mode or manner in which the action denoted by the verb is represented.

We usually use a verb to make a statement of fact or ask a question.


• I write a letter to my parents every month.
• May I know your name, please?

But a verb can be used to express a command.


• Stand up.
• Come here.
• Pay your fees.

At the same time, a verb can be used to express a supposition.


• If I were the Prime Minister of this country, I would reduce the income-tax ceiling.
• If you were I, you would do the same thing.

These different modes or manners in which a verb can be used to express an action are called MOODS.This word comes from the Latin word ‘
modus’ which means manner.

There are
three moods in English.

1. Indicative mood.

2. Imperative mood.

3. Subjunctive mood.

1. Indicative mood:

This type is used just to indicate the fact or to raise a question as follows.

i. To make a statement of fact.


• We purchase the news-paper daily.
• My daughter goes to school by train.
• This university has more than 20,000 students.
• Your letter was posted yesterday.
• You are great.
• He is an intelligent student.
• Mr. Clinton is the Chairman of this company.
• This road has been blocked due to repairing works.
• Our tour program stands cancelled.
• I could not move out of my office today due to heavy work.
• All are welcome.

ii. To ask a question.


• Where do you purchase your news-paper?
• How are you?
• Where is your brother?
• What did happen to your car?
• Who is your music master?
• Why can not you come with us now?
• Is this your pen?

iii. To express a supposition that is assumed as a fact.


• If he is the leader of this group, he deserves to be rewarded. (Assuming as a fact that he is the leader)

• If my brother goes to Japan, he will get me this ROBOT. (Assuming as a fact that my brother goes to Japan)

• If you come to this university for your higher education, you will reach the top level.
(Assuming as a fact that you come to this University).

A verb which makes a statement of fact or asks a question or expresses a supposition which is assumed as fact is in the indicative mood.

2. Imperative mood:

This type is used to express

i. A command:


• Get up.
• Go out.
• Come here.
• Wait for your boss.
• Close the doors.
• Kneel down.
• Follow him.
• Read quickly.

ii. An exhortation.


• Take care of your health.
• Be aware of pick-pockets.
• Try your level best to score the maximum marks.
• Take this test once.

iii. An entreaty or prayer.


• Bless us.
• Have mercy upon us.
• Forgive me.
A verb which expresses a command, an exhortation, an entreaty or prayer is in the Imperative Mood.

3.Subjunctive mood:

This occurs in two occassions.

a.Present Subjunctive Mood.
b.Past Subjunctive Mood.

a. The Present Subjunctive Mood occurs

i. In few traditional phrases where it expresses a wish or a hope.


• God blesses you.
• God saves the king.
• Heaven helps us.

ii. To express a desire, an intention or a resolution.


• I move that Mr. Clinton be appointed the next president of the organization.
• It is suggested that the Mount road be closed for a week for the maintenance work.
• They preferred that the annual subscription be increased to $250.00.

b. The Past Subjunctive Mood occurs

i. After the verb wish to indicate a situation which is unreal or contrary to fact.


• I wish I were a millionaire. (The fact is I am not a millionaire)
• I wish this car belonged to me. (The fact is this car does not belong to me).

ii. After if, to express improbability or unreality in the present.


• If I were you, I would have got admission into this university. (The fact is I am not you)
• If we started now, we could reach the town by 11pm. (But the fact is we could not start now)

iii. After as if/as though, to express improbability or unreality in the present.


• He orders me about as if I were his wife (But I am not)
• He walks around as though he were drunk. (But he is not)

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