A noun or a pronoun can perform five functions.
Those five noun-functions are:
1.It can be THE SUBJECT of a verb.
• Mr. Ram leads the team.
“Mr. Ram" is the subject of the verb ‘leads’.
• He is writing.
“He" is the subject of the verb ‘is writing’.
• The monkeys destroyed the garden.
“The monkeys" is the subject of the verb ‘destroyed’.
• The children are playing joyfully.
“The children" is the subject of the verb ‘are playing’.
The second one in Noun-functions is:
2. A noun or a pronoun can be THE DIRECT or INDIRECT OBJECT of a verb.
• I took the book.
“Book" is the direct object of the verb ‘took’.
• The Government will take the decision.
“The decision" is the direct object of the verb ‘will take’.
• A herd of elephants is crossing the river.
“The river" is the object of the verb ‘is crossing’.
• He gave me the news.
“Me" is the direct object and “news" is the indirect object of the verb ‘gave’.
The third one in Noun-functions is:
3. A noun or a pronoun can be THE OBJECT OF PREPOSITION.
• I saw him in his office.
“Office" is the object of preposition ‘in’.
• The girl returns from school.
“School" is the object of prepositin ‘from’.
• The meeting will be held at short notice.
“Notice" is the object of preposition ‘at’.
• The children are shouting at the stray dogs.
“Dogs" is the object of preposition ‘at’.
The fourth one in Noun-functions is:
4. A noun or a pronoun can be DESCRIPTIVE OF ANOTHER NOUN OR A PRONOUN.
That means that the noun can be in apposition with another noun. The word “apposition" means “placed side by side"
Or “placed parallel to"
• I, the president of this association, will take the decision.
“The President" is in apposition with ‘I’.
• Mr. Ram, the captain, scored only fifty points.
“The captain" is in apposition with ‘Mr. Ram’.
• You, the eldest son of your parents, should assume all the responsibilities of your family.
“Son" is in apposition with ‘You’.
• Everest, the highest peak in the world, is 29000 feet high.
“Peak" is in apposition with ‘Everest'.
• One of the most of US Presidents, Abraham Lincoln was known for his ready wit.
“One of the most famous of US Presidents" is said to be used in apposition with the subject of the sentence “Abraham Lincoln".
• Mahatma Gandhi, father of the Indian nation, led a non-violent struggle to attain independence from the British.
“Father of the Indian nation" is in apposition with “Mahatma Gandhi".
1. The House of Commons, The Mother of Parliamentarians, has been the scene of many scintillating debates
between leading orators.
2. The greatest playwright of all times, William Shakespeare wrote not only plays but also sonnets and other poems.
1. The office is closed.
Here, the noun “office" is used as the subject.
2. My friend is the manager of this company.
Here the noun “manager" is used as the object.
3. Pickwick-papers, a novel, was written by Charles Dickens.
Here the noun “novel" has been used in apposition
4. Mr. K.R.Narayanan, the ex-president of India, is a fine gentleman.
The noun-phrase “the ex-president of India has been used in apposition with Mr. K.R.Narayanan.
5. I met your friend yesterday.
The noun “your friend" has been used as “object" of the verb “met".