Grammar : Participle
Participle is a word used to add extra meaning to the sentence.
1. Hearing the noise, the boy woke up.
Here, the boy woke up is a fact. But why did he wake up?
He woke up because he heard the noise.
In order to add extra meaning to the sentence, the phrase hearing the noise has been added.
The word hearing is formed from the verb hear and governs an object.
The word hearing qualifies the noun boy as an Adjective does.
The word hearing, therefore, partakes of the nature of both a verb and an Adjective and is called PARTICIPLE.
It may be called a Verbal Adjective.
The word, which partakes of the nature of both a verb and an Adjective, is called PARTICIPLE
2. I saw an elephant carrying a pack of Vegetables on its back.
In this sentence, the word ‘carrying’ qualifies the noun elephant. So ‘carrying’ is a participle.
Here as well as in the above sentence, the participles are in the continuous forms (hearing & carrying) of their verbs (hear & carry).
This type of participle is called PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
3. Being the eldest son, John had to shoulder all the responsibilities of his family after his father died.
In this sentence, the word ‘being’ qualifies the pronoun ‘John’. That is a Present Participle.
4. Driven by hunger, He stole a piece of bread.
In this sentence, the word ‘driven’ qualifies the noun ‘he’. You see that the word is not in the Present Participle form.
This type of participle is called PAST PARTICIPLE.
5. Deceived by his friends, he lost all his properties.
In this sentence also the word ‘deceived’ is a Past Participle.
6. Having elected him President, the people gave him the royal support.
In this different sentence the phrase ‘having elected’ qualifies the noun ‘people’.
But this phrase is neither Present participle nor Past Participle.
This phrase indicates an action which came to an end in the near past.
This type of participle is called PERFECT PARTICIPLE.
7. Having come of age, John entered into partnership with his father.
In this sentence, the phrase ‘having come’ is a Perfect Participle.
So, there are three types of Participles.
A. Present Participle
B. Past Participle
C. Perfect Participle
Let us see few more examples in each of these three participles.
• Going up the stairs, the boy fell down.
• Working all day, I was fatigued.
• Not knowing my way, I asked the Policeman.
• Mounting his horse, the bandit rode off.
• Seeing the Sunshine, I threw open the window.
• Encouraged by his wife, he persevered.
• Enchanted by the whole scene, I lingered on my voyage.
• We saw few trees laden with fruits.
• Blinded by smog, we lost our way.
• Experienced for a decade, I prepared the manual in a minute.
• Having failed in the first attempt, he made no further attempts.
• Having lost my certificates, I applied for the duplicates.
• Having gained the truth, He remained calm.