Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing :
This page is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses
of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This
page compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and
includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills.
What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and
These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own
writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source
Quotations must be identical to the original, using a
narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for
word and must be attributed to the original author.
Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source
material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the
original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original
passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it
Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into
your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is
necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries
are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of
the source material.
Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?
Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might
use them to . . .
- Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
- Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
- Give examples of several points of view on a subject
- Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree
- Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by
quoting the original
- Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue
readers that the words are not your own
- Expand the breadth or depth of your writing
Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations.
As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might
include paraphrases of various key points blended with quotations of
striking or suggestive phrases as in the following example:
In his famous and influential work On the
Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud argues that dreams are the "royal
road to the unconscious" (page #), expressing in coded imagery the
dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the "dream work"
(page #). According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires are censored
internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation and
displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself
How to use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries
Practice summarizing the following essay, using paraphrases and
quotations as you go. It might be helpful to follow these steps:
- Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas.
- Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay
- Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the
- Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should
be quoted directly.
There are several ways to integrate quotations into your text. Often, a
short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence. Longer
quotations can stand alone. Remember that quoting should be done only
sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct
quotation when you decide to do so. You'll find guidelines for citing
sources and punctuating citations at our documentation guide pages.
Other Pages in This Section :
Paraphrase : Write it in Your Own Words. : Paraphrasing is one way to use a text in your own writing without directly quoting source material.
Sample Essay : Here is a sample essay you can practice quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing.