Analysis of Complex Sentences




Analysis of Complex Sentences :


Analysis of Simple Sentences

In analyzing a simple sentence, we first divide it into the complete subject and the complete predicate. Then we point out the simple subject with its modifiers and the simple predicate with its modifiers and complement (if there is one). If either the subject or the predicate is compound, we mention the simple subjects or predicates that are joined.

1. The polar bear lives in the Arctic regions.

This is a simple sentence. The complete subject is the polar bear. The complete predicate is lives in the Arctic regions. The simple subject is the noun bear. The simple predicate is the verb lives. Bear is modified by the adjectives the and polar. LIVES is modified by the adverbial phrase in the Arctic regions. This phrase consists of the preposition in; its object, the noun regions and the adjectives the and Arctic, modifying regions.

2. The polar bear and the walrus live and thrive in the Arctic regions.

The complete subject is the polar bear and the walrus. Two simple subjects (bear and walrus) are joined by the conjunction and to make a compound subject, and two simple predicates (live and thrive) are joined by and to make a compound predicate. Live and thrive are both modified by the adverbial phrase in the Arctic regions.

Analysis of Compound Sentences

In analyzing a compound sentence we first divide it into its coördinate clauses, and then analyze each clause by itself. Thus…..

The polar bear lives in the Arctic regions, but it sometimes reaches temperate latitudes.

This is a compound sentence consisting of two coördinate clauses joined by the conjunction but (1) the polar bear lives in the Arctic regions and (2) it sometimes reaches temperate latitudes. The complete subject of the first clause is the polar bear. The subject of the second clause is it; the complete predicate is sometimes reaches temperate latitudes. The simple predicate is reaches, which is modified by the adverb sometimes and is completed by the direct object latitudes. The complement latitudes is modified by the adjective temperate.

Analysis of Complex Sentences

In analyzing a complex sentence, we first divide it into the main clause and the subordinate clause.

1. The polar bear, which lives in the Arctic regions, sometimes reaches temperate latitudes.

This is a complex sentence. The main clause is the polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes; the subordinate clause is which lives in the Arctic regions. The complete subject of the sentence is the polar bear, which lives in the Arctic regions; the complete predicate is sometimes reaches temperate latitudes. The simple subject is bear, which is modified by the adjectives the and polar and by the adjective clause which lives in the Arctic regions. The simple predicate is reaches, which is modified by the adverb sometimes and completed by the direct object latitudes. This complement, latitudes, is modified by the adjective temperate. The subordinate clause is introduced by the relative pronoun which. [Then analyze the subordinate clause.]

2. The polar bear reaches temperate latitudes when the ice drifts southward.

This is a complex sentence. The main clause is the polar bear reaches temperate latitudes; the subordinate clause is when the ice drifts southward. The complete subject of the sentence is the polar bear; the complete predicate is reaches temperate latitudes when the ice drifts southward. The simple subject is bear, which is modified by the adjectives the and polar. The simple predicate is reaches, which is modified by the adverbial clause when the ice drifts southward, and completed by the noun latitudes (the direct object of reaches). The complement latitudes is modified by the adjective temperate. The subordinate clause is introduced by the relative adverb when. [Then analyze the subordinate clause.]

3. The polar bear, which lives in the Arctic regions when it is at home, sometimes reaches temperate latitudes.

This is a complex sentence. The main clause is the polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes; the subordinate clause is which lives in the Arctic regions when it is at home, which is complex, since it contains the adverbial clause when it is at home, modifying the verb lives.

4. He says that the polar bear lives in the Arctic regions.

This is a complex sentence. The main clause is he says; the subordinate clause is that the polar bear lives in the Arctic regions. The subject of the sentence is he, the complete predicate is says that the polar bear lives in the Arctic regions. The simple predicate is says, which is completed by its direct object, the noun clause that ... regions, introduced by the conjunction that. [Then analyze the subordinate clause.]

5. That the polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes is a familiar fact.

This is a complex sentence. The main clause (is a familiar fact) appears as a predicate only, since the subordinate clause (that the polar bear sometimes reaches temperate latitudes) is a noun clause used as the complete subject of the sentence. The simple predicate is is, which is completed by the predicate nominative fact. This complement is modified by the adjectives a and familiar. The subordinate clause, which is used as the complete subject, is introduced by the conjunction that. [Then analyze this clause.]

Analysis of Compound Complex Sentences

In analyzing a compound complex sentence, we first divide it into the independent clauses (simple or complex) of which it consists and then analyze each of these as if it were a sentence by itself.


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