Lists of Verbs

Lists of Verbs :

In the first list, only such verb forms are given as are indisputably correct in accordance with the best prose usage of the present day. The pupil may feel perfectly safe, therefore, in using the forms registered in this list.

A few verbs (marked *) which are seldom or never used in ordinary language are included in this list. These have various irregularities. A few verbs are partly strong and partly weak.

Weak verbs are printed in italics.


Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle
abide abode abode
am (subjunc., be) was been
arise arose arisen
awake awoke, awaked awaked
bear bore borne, born
beat beat beaten
beget begot begotten
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld
bend bent bent
bereave bereft, bereaved bereft, bereaved
beseech besought besought
bet bet bet
bid (command) bade bidden
bid (money) bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
build built built
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
chide chid chidden
choose chose chosen
*cleave (split) cleft, clove cleft, cleaved (cloven, adj.)
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk (drunken, adj.)
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbear forbore forborne
forget forgot forgotten
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung, hanged hung, hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
heave hove, heaved hove, heaved
hew hewed hewn
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lade laded laded, laden
lay laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie (recline) lay lain
light lighted or lit lighted or lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
pen(shut up)
put put put
read rĕad rĕad
*reave reft, reaved reft, reaved
reeve rove rove
rend rent rent
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
*rive rived riven, rived
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
*seethe (transitive) sod, seethed seethed (sodden, adj.)
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved (shaven, adj.)
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoe shod shod
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk (shrunken, adj.)
*shrive shrove, shrived shriven, shrived
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid, slidden
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
smite smote smitten
sow sowed sowed, sown
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spin spun spun
spit spit spit
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
stave stove, staved stove, staved
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stunk stunk
strew strewed strewn
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck (stricken, adj.)
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swelled, swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
thrive throve, thrived thriven, thrived
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden
wake woke, waked woke, waked
wax (grow)
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
weep wept wept
wet wet wet
win won won
wind wound wound
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

Bear, break, drive, get (beget, forget), speak, spin, stink, swear, tear, have an archaic past tense in a: bare, brake, drave, gat, spake, etc.

Beat, beget (forget), bite, break, forsake, hide, ride, shake, speak, weave, write, and some other verbs have archaic forms of the past participle like those of the past tense. The participles in en, however, are now the accepted forms. Chid and trod are common participial forms.

Begin, drink, ring, shrink, sing, sink, spring, swim, often have in poetry a u-form (begun, sung, etc.) in the past tense as well as in the past participle. This form (though good old English) should be avoided in modern speech.

Bend, beseech, bet, build, burst, catch, dwell, rend, split, wet, have archaic or less usual forms in ed: bended, beseeched, betted, etc. Builded is common in the proverbial “He builded better than he knew." Bursted is common as an adjective: “a bursted bubble."

Bid, “to command," has sometimes bid in both the past tense and the past participle; bid, “to offer money," has these forms regularly.

Blend, leap, lean, have usually blended, leaped, leaned; but blent, leapt, leant are not uncommon.

Clothe has commonly clothed; but clad is common in literary use, and is regular in the adjectives well-clad, ill-clad (for which ordinary speech has substituted well-dressed, badly or poorly dressed).

Dive has dived; but dove (an old form) is common in America.

Plead has past tense and past participle pleaded. Plead (pronounced plĕd) is avoided by careful writers and speakers.

Prove has past tense and past participle proved. The past participle proven should be avoided.

Work has past tense and past participle worked. Wrought in the past tense and the past participle is archaic, but is also modern as an adjective (as in wrought iron).

Some verbs have rare or archaic weak forms alongside of the strong forms; thus digged, shined, past tense and past participle of dig, shine; showed, past participle of show.

Ate and eaten are preferred to eat (pronounced ĕt).

Quoth, “said," is an old strong past tense. The compound bequeath has bequeathed only.

Miscellaneous archaisms are the past tenses sate for sat, trode for trod, spat for spit; also writ for wrote and written, rid for rode and ridden, strewed and strown for strewn.

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