Modifiers, English Grammar, Advanced English Grammar
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In accordance with their use in the sentence, words are divided into eight classes called parts of speech….namely…nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.
(1) A noun is the name of a person, place or thing.
(2) A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It designates a person, place, or thing without naming it.
Nouns and pronouns are called substantives.
The substantive to which a pronoun refers is called its antecedent.
(3) An adjective is a word which describes or limits a substantive.
This it usually does by indicating some quality.
An adjective is said to belong to the substantive which it describes or limits.
An adjective which describes is called a descriptive adjective; one which points out or designates is called a definitive adjective.
(4) A verb is a word which can assert something (usually an action) concerning a person, place or thing.
Some verbs express state or condition rather than action.
A group of words that is used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.
Certain verbs, when used to make verb-phrases, are called auxiliary (that is….aiding) verbs, because they help other verbs to express action or state of some particular kind.
Is (in its various forms) and several other verbs may be used to frame sentences in which some word or words in the predicate describe or define the subject. In such sentences, is and other verbs that are used for the same purpose are called copulative (that is, “joining") verbs.
(5) An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
A word or group of words that changes or modifies the meaning of another word is called a modifier.
Adjectives and adverbs are both modifiers.
(6) A preposition is a word placed before a substantive to show its relation to some other word in the sentence.
The substantive which follows a preposition is called its object.
(7) A conjunction connects words or groups of words.
(8) An interjection is a cry or other exclamatory sound expressing surprise, anger, pleasure, or some other emotion or feeling.
10. The meaning of a word in the sentence determines to what part of speech it belongs.
The same word may be sometimes one part of speech, sometimes another.
11. The infinitive is a verb-form which partakes of the nature of a noun. It is commonly preceded by the preposition to, which is called the sign of the infinitive.
12. The participle is a verb-form which has no subject, but which partakes of the nature of an adjective and expresses action or state in such a way as to describe or limit a substantive.
A participle is said to belong to the substantive which it describes or limits.
The chief classes of participles are present participles and past participles, so called from the time which they denote.