Nominative Case and Pronouns






Nominative Case and Pronouns :


Pronouns

What is a pronoun?

A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.

Personal Pronouns

Nominative Case and Pronouns

Singular Nouns and Pronouns

Subject …….Verb……Object

I hit the ball.
You hit the ball .
He hit the ball.
She hits the ball.
It hits the ball.



Plural Nouns and Pronouns

WE hit the ball.
You hit the ball.
They hit the ball.
They hit the ball.



The First Person

I love my parents.
We like football.
My father saw me.
The soldiers greet us.
My brother sent a letter to me.
They sold their house to us.



The Second Person

You don’t know me.
I saw you in the street.
I gave the book to you.



The Third Person

He is a good pupil.
She speaks English well.
It likes fish.
They go to the stadium.
I saw him stealing the lady.
Handy bought an ice-cream for him.
He watched her.
Her husband sent a gift to her.
We saluted them.
The president gave prizes to them.
Mona read it.
The driver bought new tyres for it.
The baker baked them.
The wife made new curtains for them.

Notes :

a) YOU have the same form in singular and in plural.

What are you doing?

b) PRONOUNS stand for people in singular and plural.

He is a good player.
They are good players

c) Pronouns stand for things and animals in singular and plural.

Where is my book?
It is under the bed.
Where are my books?
They are under the bed.

Can the hen lay an egg?
Yes. It can.
Can the cocks lay eggs?
No. They can’t.



Objective Case and Pronouns

Object

Singular

The ball hit me.
The ball hit him.
The ball hit her.
The ball hit you.
The ball hit us.

Plural

The ball hit you.
The ball hit them.

Notes : IT has the same form in nominative case and objective case.

Where is my book?
It is under the bed. (Nominative Case)
Don’t you see it? (Objective Case)



Object of Preposition

I Spoke with her.
He came with me.
She laughed at him.
We listened to them.
They mocked at us.
I send my regards to her.
He sends his regards to you.
She sends her regards to me.
You send your regards to him.
We send our regards to them.
They send their regards to US.
She told me a lie.
He did her a great favour.
I gave him a lesson.
We wish you good luck.
They paid us the debt.
You sold them your new car.

The uses of IT

There is no water in it.

For lower animal

The dog barked at me. It was sitting in the dark.

For pet animals

HE or SHE may be used.

For Inanimate object

Here is my new car, I bought it recently.
Here is my question. I repeat it once more.

For children but not in the hearing of their parents

The baby is suffering. See what’s wrong with it.

As an impersonal subject

With verbs concerning weather conditions…

It is like a spring day.
It is beautiful weather.
It is raining cats and dogs.

With expression of time and measurement

It is five o’clock sharp.
It is quarter to ten.
It is yet early.
It is too late.
It is five miles to the station.

With other impersonal expression

It says here that the war is over.
It refers to many other references.

As the preparatory or provisional subject to refer to a phrase or a clause….

It is nice to see you well.
It is good to hear that.
It is pleasure to meet you, sir.
It is no use crying over spilt milk.

To emphasize a word or a phrase…

It is you who walked out on me.
It is you who did that.

IT can stand for a whole sentence.

She is trying to master him. She won’t find it easy.

IT may be used idiomatically in some expressions.

I’ll let him pay dearly for it.

ONE and ONES as a pronoun

ONE replaces a noun when it goes after an adjective.

This loaf is stale. Please give me a fresh one.

Are there any new books? I’ve read all these old ones.

Use of ONE or ONES with demonstratives

That flute is broken, I’ll take this one.

Don’t use those colours. Use these ones.



Distributive Adjectives and Pronouns

EACH

If EACH comes before a noun or pronoun, the verb must be singular - sometimes, as in example below, the noun may be understood but not expressed.

1. Each man writes in a different way.
2. Each of them has a bicycle.
3. Each has a bicycle.
4. I know that each of the boys has a pen.

If EACH comes after a noun or pronoun, the verb must be plural.

1. The boys each have four pounds.
2. Hany, Farid and David each have a bicycle.
3. The girls have each made a dress.
4. People were standing on each side of the road.
5. The teacher encouraged each student in the class.
6. Each of the students wanted to try.
7. Ali met each of us.







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