Relative Pronouns

Relative Pronouns :

relative pronoun usually stands for some nouns called its antecedent and joins two sentences together.

In English the relative pronouns don’t change according to the antecedent. In Arabic they change according to gender and number of the antecedent.

For Persons

Subject : WHO and THAT

Object : WHO, WHOM and THAT

Possessive : WHOSE

For Things

Subject : WHOSE

Object : WHOSE

Possessive : FOR WHICH

For Things and Animals

Subject : THAT

Object : THAT

Possessive : WHICH

A) Subject

1. The boy works with me. The boy is my brother.
The boy who is my brother works with me.

2. The man just entered. The man was kidnapped.
The man who was stolen has just entered.

3. The girl is my daughter- The girl .plays there.
The girl who plays there is my daughter


He was the best teacher who taught this subject.
He was one of the best teachers that taught this subject.

B) Direct Object

1. I met a beautiful girl. The girl was my friend.
The beautiful girl, whom I met, was my friend.

2. The manager interviewed the girl. She was given the job.
The girl whom the manager interviewed was given the job.

C) Indirect Object

Preposition + Whom or who + Indirect Object

1) I am looking forward to meet my girl friend. I bought her a nice present.

I am looking forward to meet my girl friend for whom I bought a nice present.

D) Object to a Preposition

Harndy went to hospital. A vase fell on him.
Harndy on whom fell a vase went to hospital.
Harndy whom a vase fell on went to hospital.
The man's rent has been raised. He can appeal.
The man whose rent has been raised can appeal.

2) For things & animals

a) Subject

The bag was red. The bag was stolen.

The bag which was red was stolen.

b) Direct Object

1) I bought a pencil. It has lost.

The pencil which I bought has lost.

2) The book is a novel. I am reading the book.

The book (that) I am reading is a novel.

3) The bus crashed. It was uninsured.

The bus which crashed was uninsured.

c) Indirect Object

I gave the car a new colour. It looks lovely now.

The car to which I gave a new colour looks lovely now.

d) Object To Preparation

prep + which

I was sitting on a chair. It fell down.
The chair on which I was sitting fell down.
The chair which I was sitting on fell down.

e) Possessive Case

of which

The legs of the chair were broken. It had to be repaired.
The chair whose legs were broken had to be repaired.
The chair which, I was sitting on, fell down.
The chair I was sitting on fell down.


1. He did not tell me (what) he said (pronoun)

2. The reason (why) he did not come was not known (relative adverb).

the thing which

The thing which Hany says is not important.
What Hany says is not important.

The man who was ill was brought to the doctor.
The man brought to the doctor was ill.

The Relative Clause

the infinitive the last
the second
the first

The captain was the last man who left the ship.

The captain was the last man to leave the ship.

it + verb (to be)+ noun or pronoun + relative clause.

Hasan paid the rent.

It was Hasan who paid the rent.

One of the players is being carried off the field.

I think it is Hany who is being carried off.

It is always my sister Hoda who makes the tea.

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