Substantive Clauses




Substantive Clauses :


Noun Clauses = Substantive Clauses

Success | That we should succeed in this plan | is improbable.

The thought in these two sentences is the same, but in the second it is more fully expressed. In the first sentence, the subject is the noun success…in the second, the subject is the noun clause… that we should succeed in this plan. This clause is introduced by the conjunction THAT the simple subject of the clause is the pronoun WE and the simple predicate is the verb-phrase should succeed. The first sentence is simple. The second is complex.

Substantive clauses are often introduced by the conjunction that.

Adjective Clauses

The following sentences illustrate the use of (1) an adjective, (2) an adjective phrase, (3) an adjective clause as a modifier of the subject noun.

{An honorable man | A man of honor | A man who values his honor} will not lie.

{A seasonable word | A word in season | A word that is spoken at the right moment} may save a soul.

{My native land | The land of my birth | The land where I was born} lies far across the sea.

The first two sentences in each group are simple, the third is complex.

Adverbial Clauses

The following sentences illustrate the use of (1) an adverb, (2) an adverbial phrase, (3) an adverbial clause as a modifier of the predicate verb (or verb-phrase).

The lightning struck {here. | on this spot. | where we stand.}

Mr. Andrews lives {near. | in this neighborhood. | where you see that elm.}

The game began {punctually. | on the stroke of one. | when the clock struck.}

The banker will make the loan {conditionally. | on one condition. | if you endorse my note.}

The first two sentences in each group are simple. The third is complex.

Adjective clauses may be introduced

(1) By the pronouns WHO, WHICH, and THAT.

(2) By adverbs like WHERE, WHENCE, WHITHER, WHEN.

Adverbial clauses may be introduced

(1) By the adverbs where, whither, whence, when, while, before, after, until, how, as

(2) By the conjunctions because, though, although, if, that (in order that, so that), lest, etc.

Note : The use of phrases and clauses as parts of speech increases enormously the richness and power of language. Though English has a huge stock of words, it cannot provide a separate noun or adjective or adverb for every idea. By grouping words, however, in phrases and clauses we, in effect, make a great variety of new nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, each precisely fitted to the needs of the moment in the expression of thought.


Substantive Clauses :







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