Grammar : Parts of Speech
You saw in the first lesson that the words are very important in the formation of sentences.
The words constitute the Parts of Speech.
The words used in English are divided into eight parts according to the functions carried out by those words in a sentence.
Those EIGHT PARTS are:
All these parts of speech have their own roles in the formation of sentences. In the following lessons, we can see all these parts of speeches indepth. Now,let us see these eight parts one by one briefly.
A noun is a word used as a name of a person, place, thing,
state, quality, activity, action etc...
• Mr. John is our English teacher.
In this sentence the words “Mr. John" and “teacher" are nouns.
• Harvard University is the oldest University.
In this sentence the words “Harvard" and “University" are nouns.
• Lions live in forest.
In this sentence the words “Lion" and “forest" are nouns.
• He is my best friend.
In this sentence, the words “He" and “friend" are nouns.
London, New Delhi, Himalaya, philosophy, beauty, car, road,
Management, science, school, students, books, Mrs. Raman, tree,
mango, fruits and flowers are few of the nouns.
Few other nouns are ball, town, bill, boy, child, hospital,
hotel, home, hall, fame, college, road, fruit, computer etc…
The another part in the parts of speech is
To know more about Noun
A verb is a word used to express an action or state.
• She wrote a letter.
In this sentence, the word “wrote" indicates what she did. So the word “wrote" (write) is a verb.
• New York is big city.
In this sentence, what is now the city “New York" is indicated by the word “is". So the word “is" is a verb.
• The child played in the hall.
Here in this sentence, “what the child did" is indicated by the word “played". So the word “played" (play) is a verb.
Few other verbs are talk, walk, speak, kill, elect, eat, conclude, confess, convene, collect, go, freeze, pass, communicate, learn etc…
To know more about Verb
An adjective is word used to add something to the meaning of a noun.
• He is a brave boy.
In this sentence, “what kind of boy is he" is answered by the
word “brave". So the word “brave" is an adjective.
• They are perfect people.
In this sentence, “what kinds of people are they" is answered by
the word “perfect". So the word “perfect" is an adjective.
Few other adjectives are beautiful, tall, shy, courteous, ugly, short, long, lengthy, costly, calm, nice etc…
To know more about Adjectives
An adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
• He worked the sum quickly.
Here, whether he worked the sum slow or quickly is answered by the word “quickly". So the word, “quickly" is an adverb.
• This flower is very beautiful.
Here the word “very" is used to add more meaning to the word “beautiful". That means the flower is more beautiful.So the word “very" is an adverb.
• She pronounced the word quite correctly.
Here the word “quite" is used to add meaning to the word “correctly". So the word “quite" is an adverb.
Few other adverbs are wonderfully, nicely, fast, beautifully, honestly, freely, slightly, healthily, calmly etc…
Many of the adverbs end with -ly as stated above.
But it is not a condition.
The next part in the parts of speech is
To know more about Adverbs
A pronoun is word used instead of a noun.
• Raman is boy. He is going to school.
Of these sentences, in the second sentence, the word “he" is used to indicate “Raman". So the word “he" is a pronoun.
• The students refuse to take their meals. They want to meet the warden.
Of these sentences, in the second sentence, the word “they" is used to indicate “the students". So the word “they" is a pronoun.
There are only seven pronouns. They are he, she, it, I, we, they and you. Other pronouns are their variations.
To know more about Pronouns
A preposition is word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else.
• There is cow in the garden.
Here the word “in" is preposition.
• He is in the play-ground.
Here the word “in" is a preposition.
• They are coming to your office.
Here, the word “to" is a preposition.
• The fruits are behind the leaves.
Here the word “behind" is preposition.
Few other prepositions are away, from, on, towards, till, until, unless, under, of etc…
The next part in the parts of speech is
To know more about Prepositions
A conjunction is word used to join words or sentences.
• Ram is a student. John is a student. Ram and John are students.
Here the word “and" is used to join the two words Ram & John. So the word “and" is a conjunction.
• I ran fast, but missed the train.
The word “but" is a conjunction.
Few other conjunctions are or, either…or, not only, so that, still, else, since, so, after etc…
To know more about Conjunctions
An interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feelings.
• Hurrah! I have own the game.
• Alas! She is dead.
In these sentences, the words “hurrah" and “alas" are used to express the sudden feelings of those who use these sentences.
These are the only eight parts of speech.We have seen these parts of speeches only briefly.
We can see individually one by one in the following pages.
To know more about Interjections