English Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal Verbs are idiomatic expressions, combining verbs and prepositions to make new verbs whose meaning is often not obvious from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. They are widely used in both written and spoken English, and new ones are formed all the time as they are a flexible way of creating new terms.

A reference page of 2,570 current English Phrasal Verbs (also called multi-word verbs) with definitions and examples is here.

Phrasal Verbs beginning with C :

Call after: Name someone after somebody else

She was CALLED Rose AFTER her late grandmother.

Call around: Visit

I CALLED AROUND but she was not in.

Call back: Return a phone call

I must CALL her BACK when we get to the office.

Call for:

1. Demand

The Opposition party CALLED FOR the minister's resignation after the scandal broke.

2. Go to collect something

The courier CALLED FOR your parcel, but I told him it wasn't ready yet.

3. Telephone for something

I'll CALL FOR a cab right away.

4. Go and collect someone to take them out

I'll CALL FOR you at seven, so be ready because the film starts at half past.

5. Require

An emergency like this CALLS FOR some pretty drastic action.

Call forth: Make something happen

The protests CALLED FORTH a strong reaction from the police.

Call in:

1. Get someone to come and do a job

We had to CALL IN a plumber because the sink was leaking and I had no idea how to fix it.

2. Stop and visit

I CALLED IN on Jenny on my way home because she's not very well at the moment and I wanted to see if she needed anything.

Call off:

1. Cancel

The concert had to be CALLED OFF because the singer went down with a bad case of flu.

2. Order someone to stop attacking

CALL OFF your lawyers; we can work something out.

Call on:

1. Ask for help

The President CALLED ON the wealthy countries for financial aid after the floods destroyed much of the country's agriculture.

2. Visit

As we were in the area, we CALLED ON my sister-in-law.

3. Challenge

He CALLED the speaker ON several mis-statements of fact.

4. Ask someone to do something, especially to speak in public. (Formal)

I now CALL ON the other party to give their account of what happened.

Call round: Visit

I CALLED ROUND on my way home but no one was in.

Call up:

1. Summon someone for military service

The army CALLED UP the reserve soldiers when the war broke out.

2. Telephone

I CALLED him UP as soon as I got to a phone to tell him the news.

Calm down: Stop being angry or emotionally excited

When I lose my temper, it takes ages for me to CALM DOWN again.

Cancel out: Have an opposite effect on something that has happened, taking things back to the beginning.

The airport taxes CANCELLED OUT the savings we had made on the flight tickets.

Care for: Like

I don't CARE FOR fizzy drinks; I prefer water.

Carried away: Get so emotional that you lose control

The team got CARRIED AWAY when they won the championship and started shouting and throwing things around.

Carry forward:

1. Include a figure in a later calculation

They CARRIED FORWARD their losses to the next financial year.

2. Make something progress

They hope the new management will be able to CARRY the project FORWARD.

Carry off:

1. Win, succeed

She CARRIED OFF the first prize in the competition.

2. Die of a disease

Cancer CARRIED him OFF a couple of years ago.

Carry on: Continue

CARRY ON quietly with your work until the substitute teacher arrives.

Carry on with: Have an affair

He has been CARRYING ON WITH someone at work for years.

Carry out:

1. Perform a task

The government is CARRYING OUT test on growing genetically modified crops.

2. Food bought from a restaurant to take away

I'm too tired to cook- let's get a CARRY-OUT.

Carry over: Continue past a certain point

The meeting CARRIED OVER into the afternoon because there was so much to talk about.

Carry through: Complete successfully

They CARRIED the reforms THROUGH despite the opposition.

Cart off:

1. Take someone away, usually under arrest or to prison

The police CARTED them OFF to question them.

2. Take something away, especially if stealing or without permission

The thieves CARTED OFF all the ticket receipts.

Cash in: Convert shares, bonds, casino chips, etc, into money

They CASHED IN their bonds and spent the money on a holiday.

Cash in on: Benefit or make money on something, especially if done unfairly

The opposition party is CASHING IN ON the government’s unpopularity.

Cash out: Illegally access a bank account or credit card and steal money

A hacker got my credit card details from my computer and CASHED OUT a lot of money.

Cash up: Count all the money taken in a shop or business at the end of the day

After the shop closed, they have to CASH UP before they can go home.

Catch at: Take or grab hold of something

She CAUGHT AT my sleeve as I was leaving and said she needed to talk to me.

Catch on:

1. Become popular

Many critics were shocked when techno CAUGHT ON in the clubs.

2. Finally understand what is going on

Everyone else realized what was happening, but it took Henry ages to CATCH ON.

Catch out:

1. Trick

The exam is designed to CATCH you OUT.

2. Discover or prove that someone is lying

He CAUGHT me OUT when he checked my story with my previous employer.

3. Put someone in an unexpected and difficult situation (often passive)

We were CAUGHT OUT in the storm.

Catch up:

1. Get work, etc, up to date.

I was ill for a fortnight and now I've got to CATCH UP on the work I missed.

2. Reach someone who was ahead of you

He started well, but I CAUGHT him UP on the third lap.

Catch up on: Do something that should have been done earlier

I'm going home to CATCH UP ON my sleep.

Catch up with:

1. Do something that should have been done earlier

I am going home to CATCH UP WITH my sleep.

2. Meet someone after a period of time and find out what they have been doing

I CAUGHT UP WITH her at the conference.

3. When something negative starts to have an effect

His criminal behavior is starting to CATCH UP WITH him.

4. Punish someone after they have been doing something wrong for a long time

The tax authorities CAUGHT UP WITH me for not submitting my tax returns.

5. Learn something new that many people already understand

My mother is trying to CATCH UP WITH computers.

Cater for : To provide what is necessary

The college CATERS FOR students of all ages.

Cater to : To provide what is needed, often seen negatively

The film CATERS TO the audience’s worst instincts.

Cave in :

1. Collapse

The roof CAVED IN because of the weight of the snow.

2. Stop resisting or refusing

The government has refused to CAVE IN despite the protests and demonstrations.

Chalk out : To cut a line of cocaine

He went into the toilets to CHALK a line OUT.

Chalk up : To achieve something good

The company has CHALKED UP its highest ever profits.

Chalk up to : Explain the reason for a problem

They CHALKED the poor sales UP TO the lower numbers of tourists visiting this year.

Chance upon : Find something by accident

I CHANCED UPON a very rare book in car boot sale and bought it for 65p.

Change over : Change a system

The Irish CHANGED OVER to using kilometers in 2005.

Charge up : Put electricity into a battery

I need to CHARGE my phone UP- the battery's dead.

Charge with : Accuse somebody of a crime

She was arrested in customs last night and has been CHARGED WITH smuggling.

Chase down : Try hard to find or get something

The press CHASED us DOWN when the story broke.

Chase off : Force a person to leave or go away

The dog CHASED he postal worker OFF.

Chase up :

1. Ensure that someone remembers to do something

The librarian is CHASING me UP about my overdue books.

2. Try to get someone to pay a bill, debt, etc

I CHASED her UP as she hadn’t paid for several months.

3. Try to get more information about the progress of something

I did not get a reply so I have been CHASING them UP.

Chat up : Talk to someone you are sexually interested in to get them interested in you

He spent the whole night CHATTING her UP.

Cheat on : Be sexually unfaithful

She CHEATED ON me with my friend.

Cheat out of : Get money from someone under false pretences

I hate him. He CHEATED me OUT OF £100.

Check by : Visit a place to check something

We CHECKED BY the office to see if the stuff was ready.

Check in : Register on arriving at a hotel or at the airport

They CHECKED IN at the Ritz yesterday.

Check into : Register on arriving at a hotel or at the airport

They CHECKED INTO the Ritz yesterday.

Check off : Mark something on a list as done

She CHECKED OFF the candidates' names as they arrived.

Check out :

1. Pay the bill when leaving a hotel

She CHECKED OUT and took a cab to the airport.

2. Die

She CHECKED OUT last week; the funeral's tomorrow.

Check out of : Settle up and pay before leaving a hotel

Guests have to CHECK OUT OF the hotel before midday.

Check over : Check something very carefully

We CHECKED the contract OVER before signing it.

Cheer on : Encourage

Their CHEERED their team ON throughout the match.

Cheer up : Be less unhappy

Come on, CHEER UP; it isn't all bad, you know.

Chew on : Thinks about something carefully before deciding

I'll CHEW ON it for a day or two and let you know what I think.

Chew out : Criticize someone angrily

They CHEWED him OUT for being late.

Chew over : Think about an issue

He asked for a few days to CHEW the matter OVER before he made a final decision.

Chew up :

1. Cut into small pieces with your teeth

The puppy CHEWED UP the newspaper.

2. Damage something inside a machine

The video CHEWED my tape UP.

Chicken out : Be too afraid to do something

I CHICKENED OUT of the bungee jumping when I saw how high it was.

Chill out : Relax

I'm staying at home and CHILLING OUT this evening.

Chime in : Contribute to a discussion

If it's OK, I'd like to CHIME IN because I think it's a good idea.

Chip away at : Gradually reduce something to make it less powerful, effective, etc

They have been CHIPPING AWAY AT his reputation ever since he took office.

Chip in :

1. Contribute some money

Everybody CHIPPED IN to pay the bill.

2. Contribute to a discussion

If I could CHIP IN, there are a couple of issues I'd like to raise.

Choose up :

1. Form groups or teams

We CHOSE UP to play the game.

2. Form groups or teams

We CHOSE UP teams before the game.

Chop down : Fell or cut down a tree

They CHOPPED DOWN most of the forest and now it looks like a desert.

Chop up : Cut into small pieces

I CHOPPED UP the vegetables for the soup.

Chuck away : Dispose of something you no longer need or want

I CHUCKED AWAY all my old records years ago when CDs came out.

Chuck in :

1. Quit something

I CHUCKED my job IN to go travelling.

2. Make a comment

I CHUCKED IN a few points at the end of the discussion.

Chuck out : Dispose of something you no longer need or want

I CHUCKED OUT some stuff I found in the fridge that had gone bad.

Chuck up :

1. Vomit, be sick

He got ridiculously drunk and CHUCKED UP in the back of the minicab on the way home.

2. Quit something

She didn't like the course, so she CHUCKED it UP after a few weeks.

Churn out : Produce, usually quickly or in large amounts without much regard to quality

The government CHURNS OUT educational policies every few months.

Clag up : Make something sticky

His arteries are CLAGGED UP because he eats so much saturated fat.

Clam up : Be quiet, refuse to speak

Everybody CLAMMED UP when the Principal entered.

Clamp down on : Restrict or try to stop something

The governments are CLAMPING DOWN ON antisocial behaviour.

Claw back :

1. Get money back

The new tax will CLAW BACK what the government has given out in grants.

2. Retake possession with difficulty

The opposition parties are trying to CLAW BACK the voters they lost in the last election.

Clean out :

1. Tidy up thoroughly and throw away unwanted things.

I really must CLEAN the study OUT; there's stuff all over the floor and piles of paper everywhere.

2. Cause someone to spend all their money

The holiday CLEANED me OUT- I'm broke till the end of the month.

Clean up : Tidy and clean

CLEAN this bedroom UP; it's a disgrace.

Clear away :

1. Leave a place

We were told to CLEAR AWAY from the scene of the accident.

2. Remove or tidy

After dinner, I CLEARED AWAY the plates and dishes.

Clear off : Leave somewhere quickly

As soon as the trouble started, we CLEARED OFF.

Clear out :

1. Tidy up thoroughly and throw away unwanted stuff.

I spent the whole weekend CLEARING OUT the attic as it was full of papers and other junk.

2. Leave somewhere

I told them to CLEAR OUT because they were making so much noise.

Clear up :

1. Cure or recover from an infection

I took the antihistamines and the rash CLEARED UP right away.

2. Tidy up

I'd better CLEAR AWAY the mess before leave.

3. Explain

Could you CLEAR these points UP before we go any further?

4. Improve (weather)

The skies CLEARED UP and the sun came out.

Click through : Open an advertisement on the Internet

Only a tiny fraction of users ever bother CLICKING THROUGH the banner adverts.

Climb down : Accept that you are wrong and change your position

The Prime Minister had to CLIMB DOWN over his tax proposals because there was so much opposition from the members of his own party.

Clog up : Block, slow movement right down

The traffic's so bad the roads get CLOGGED UP at rush hour.

Close down :

1. Close a shop, branch or business permanently

The banks have CLOSED DOWN a lot of branches in villages over the last few years.

2. Stop an opponent being a challenge

He CLOSED the player DOWN and stopped him being a threat.

Close in :

1. Surround, envelop

The fog CLOSED IN and we couldn't see two yards in front of us.

2. Approach, get near

The police were CLOSING IN so they decided to try to make a break.

Close in on : Get near someone

The police were CLOSING IN ON the gang.

Close in upon : Get near someone

The police were CLOSING IN UPON the gang.

Close off : Block a place to stop people entering

The police CLOSED the road OFF after the explosion.

Close on : Get nearer

She is CLOSING ON the leader of the race.

Close out :

1. Bring something to an end

We CLOSED OUT the meeting early and went home.

2. Close or stop using

She CLOSED OUT the account and changed to another bank.

3. Ignore, exclude

They always CLOSE me OUT of their plans.

Close up :

1. Completely close something

They CLOSE UP the building after everyone has left.

2. Join together

The leaves CLOSE UP when it rains.

3. Move closer together

They CLOSED UP when they saw the gang coming towards them.

Cloud over : Get very cloudy

The morning started bright and warm, but it CLOUDED OVER around midday and poured with rain.

Clown about : Behave stupidly or waste time

The students were CLOWNING ABOUT all lesson.

Clown around : Behave stupidly or waste time

I couldn't concentrate because they were CLOWNING AROUND all afternoon.

Cock up : Ruin or spoil something

It was so easy, but he managed to COCK everything UP.

Colour (Color) up : Blush

He COLOURED (COLORED) UP when he was caught stealing from the till.

Come about : Happen, occur

The meeting CAME ABOUT because both sides were sick of fighting.

Come across :

1. Find by accident

I CAME ACROSS my old school reports when I was clearing out my desk.

2. Agree to have sex with someone

I was surprised when she CAME ACROSS on the first night.

3. The way other people see you

He CAME ACROSS as shy because he spoke so quietly.

Come apart : Break into pieces

It CAME APART when I tried to lift it off the floor and I had to glue it back together.

Come before : Appear in court charged with a crime or offence

He CAME BEFORE the court on charges of speeding.

Come by :

1. Visit

I'll COME BY after work and see if you need any help.

2. Acquire

How did you COME BY that Rolex?

Come down :

1. Rain

Just look at the rain COMING DOWN! I'm not going out in that.

2. Travel

When you're next in London, COME DOWN and see us.

Come down on : Criticize heavily

The management really CAME DOWN ON him for losing the contract.

Come down with : Fall ill

She CAME DOWN WITH a virus.

Come forth : Appear

The draft proposal CAME FORTH in April.

Come forth with : Provide information

None of the witnesses CAME FORTH WITH an accurate description of the gang.

Come from : Country or town where you were born

She COMES FROM Somalia.

Come in :

1. Arrive for flights

The plane CAME IN at two-thirty in the morning.

2. Place or ranking in a competition, etc.

I did my best but CAME IN last but one in the race.

3. Receive news

Reports are just COMING IN of an assassination attempt on the President.

Come into :

1. Be important or relevant

Money doesn't COME INTO it; I simply will not do it under any circumstances.

2. Inherit

She CAME INTO a lot of money when her grandmother died.

Come into use : Start being used

The computerised system CAME INTO USE at the end of last year.

Come off :

1. When something breaks off

I picked it up and the handle CAME OFF in my hand.

2. Be successful

I was surprised when the plan CAME OFF so easily.

Come off it : I don't believe what you're saying; used as an imperative

COME OFF IT; tell me the truth for goodness' sake.

Come on :

1. Encouragement

COME ON; don't give up now when you're so close to finishing.

2. Start an illness

I've got a bit of a headache. I hope it doesn't mean I've got flu COMING ON.

3. Start functioning (machines, etc)

The central heating COMES ON automatically an hour before I have to get up.

Come out :

1. A secret is revealed

The details of the scandal CAME OUT in the press and she had to resign.

2. Be published or otherwise available to the public

The band's new CD is COMING OUT in September.

3. Disappear when washed

The red wine I spilt just will not COME OUT of the carpet no matter what I try to clean it with.

4. Let people know that you are lesbian or gay

She CAME OUT at university and has been living with her partner, Jane, for the last couple of years.

5. When the sun appears

It started cloudy, but then the sun CAME OUT and we all went to the park.

Come out in : Have a rash or similar skin problem

She CAME OUT IN a nasty rash after touching the poisonous plant by mistake.

Come out with :

1. Make something available

They have just COME OUT WITH a new version.

2. Say something publicly and unexpectedly

She CAME OUT WITH the answer when everyone was expecting it to remain unsolved.

Come over : Feel strange

I CAME OVER all faint and weak because my sugar level was too low. (British)

Come round :

1. Become conscious, wake up from anesthetic

She CAME ROUND and learned that the operation had been a complete success.

2. Change your opinion

Ate first she didn't like the idea, but she CAME ROUND to our way of thinking in the end.

Come through :

1. Arrive (messages and information)

News is COMING THROUGH of a major accident on the M25, where freezing fog has been making driving conditions extremely dangerous.

2. Communicate an emotion

The anger she felt COMES THROUGH.

3. Produce a result

They promised they'd do it, but they haven't COME THROUGH yet.

Come through with : Provide something needed

He didn't COME THROUGH WITH the money and they went bust.

Come to :

1. Become conscious, wake up from anesthetic

She CAME TO an hour after the operation.

2. Result in

The two men started arguing but they soon CAME TO blows and started fighting in earnest.

Come up :

1. Appear

I'll be late home tonight because something's COME UP at work has to be ready for tomorrow morning.

2. Rise (the sun)

The sun CAME UP just as we reached the outskirts of the town.

Come up against : Encounter problems or difficulties

They CAME UP AGAINST a lot of opposition to their plans for an out-of-town supermarket development.

Come up with : Think of a solution, excuse, etc.

Nobody could COME UP WITH a satisfactory explanation for the accident.

Come upon : Find by chance

I CAME UPON the book in a little second-hand bookshop in Dorset.

Conjure up :

1. Create a picture or memory in someone's mind

It CONJURES UP memories of my school days.

2. Create something without many resources

I had to CONJURE UP a full weekend's entertainment for the visitors with no notice at all.

Conk out :

1. Fall fast asleep

I was exhausted and CONKED OUT on the sofa.

2. Suddenly breakdown or stop working

The printer CONKED OUT so I couldn't get a hard copy.

Contract in : Become involved or committed to something

Since it started, many companies have CONTRACTED IN to lend their support.

Contract out : Give a contract for a service outside the company you work for

They have CONTRACTED OUT their catering services to save money.

Contract out of : Formally leave and agreement

I CONTRACTED OUT OF the deal years ago.

Cool down :

1. Get cooler

I left the tea for a minute until it had COOLED DOWN enough to drink.

2. Become calm

It took me ages to COOL DOWN after the argument.

Coop up : Confine in a small area

They COOPED the dog UP in a tiny room.

Cop it : Get into trouble

They really COPPED IT when they got caught shoplifting.

Cop off :

1. Leave work or school early

We COPPED OFF early on Friday because there was nothing to do.

2. Kiss, pet or have sex with someone

She COPPED OFF with Damian at the end-of-term party.

Cop out : Choose an easy alternative

She was going to take a Master's degree but COPPED OUT and chose the Diploma course instead.

Cotton on : To work out the truth

It took me ages to COTTON ON to what they were planning.

Could do with : Need or want something

I COULD really DO WITH a cup of tea.

Count in : Include or involve

If you're going on that skiing holiday, you can COUNT me IN; I'd love to go.

Count on : Depend, rely

You can COUNT ON them; if they have promised to do something, they'll do it.

Count out : Exclude

I don't want to go- you can COUNT me OUT.

Count up : Add

COUNT UP the number of tickets sold, please.

Cozy up : Make yourself comfortable

It was cold and I COZIED UP by the fire.

Cozy up to : Make yourself popular with someone

He's been COZYING UP TO our boss because he wants a pay rise.

Crack down on : Use more authority than usual

The police always CRACK DOWN ON drink-driving offences over the Christmas period.

Crack on : Continue doing something with energy

We had to CRACK ON to get everything finished on time.

Crack up :

1. Have a nervous breakdown

He CRACKED UP after his son died and had to take a couple of months off work.

2. Have bad reception on a mobile phone

You'll have to talk louder- you're CRACKING UP.

3. Burst out laughing

Everybody CRACKED UP when he told the joke.

4. Damage a car badly

He CRACKED his car UP last night when he came off the road.

Crank out : Produce a lot of something fast

My boss keeps CRANKING OUT stupid memos.

Crank up :

1. Inject non-medical drugs

He's been CRANKING UP heroin for years.

2. Start a machine, originally with a handle

He CRANKED the saw UP.

3. Increase, make something bigger

I CRANKED the volume UP as high as it would go.

Crash out :

1. Sleep at someone's house because you are too tired, drunk, etc. to leave

Dave CRASHED OUT at a friend's flat after the end-of-term party.

2. Fall asleep

I CRASHED OUT in front of the TV last night.

Creep in :

1. Start to be noticeable

He tried to stay calm, but you could hear the anger CREEPING IN.

2. Get included despite attempts to keep it or them out

Errors CREPT IN as the text got longer.

Creep into : Become noticeable in something

An angry tone CREPT INTO her voice.

Creep out : Make someone feel worried or uneasy

He CREEPS me OUT when he gets drunk.

Creep out on : To do the same activity for a very long time

He's been CREEPING OUT ON that computer game all day.

Creep over : Start to have a negative feeling

Fear CREPT OVER me as I walked through the graveyard.

Creep up on : Approach without someone realizing

They CREPT UP ON their rivals and overtook them.

Crop up : Appear unexpectedly

I'm going to be late tonight as something has just CROPPED UP at work.

Cross off : Delete, remove from a list

She CROSSED him OFF her Christmas card list after they argued.

Cross out : Put as line through some writing to show it is wrong

She CROSSED OUT her mistakes and wrote the correct answers above them.

Crumb down : Clear a table in a restaurant

The waiter CRUMBED DOWN before the coffee was served.

Cry off : To cancel an arrangement

I've got to work tonight; can I CRY OFF going out for dinner?

Cry out : Shout because you are in pain

He CRIED OUT when he dropped the box on his toes.

Cut across :

1. Go across a place rather than around it to make the journey quicker

It'll be quicker if we CUT ACROSS the park.

2. Affect people of different groups, classes, etc

The issue CUTS ACROSS social backgrounds as it affects us all equally.

Cut back : Reduce

The firm CUT BACK production because sales were sluggish.

Cut back on : Reduce expenditure

The government has decided to CUT BACK ON spending on the armed forces.

Cut down :

1. Consume less

I'm trying to CUT DOWN the amount of coffee I drink during the day.

2. Shoot

A lot of soldiers were CUT DOWN by enemy fire as they stormed the airport.

3. Reduce a vertical thing to ground level by cutting

The logger CUT the tree DOWN.

4. Cut something from a high position

After Christmas he didn't carefully detach all the decorations, he just CUT them all DOWN.

Cut down on : Reduce

Doctors advised her to CUT DOWN ON the amount of saturated fats in her diet.

Cut in :

1. Start functioning

The fans CUT IN when the engine starts getting too hot.

2. Drive in front of another vehicle without warning

A car CUT IN and nearly caused an accident.

3. Interrupt

We were having a conversation when he came up and CUT IN.

4. Include someone in a deal that makes money

We had to CUT the police IN on the deal to avoid trouble.

5. Mix fat and flour until the combine

CUT the butter IN with the flour.

Cut it out : Stop your unfair or unreasonable behavior

Will you two idiots CUT IT OUT and keep quiet.

Cut off :

1. Disconnect

The telephone's been CUT OFF because we didn't pay the bill.

2. Isolate or make inaccessible

The heavy snow has blocked many roads and CUT OFF a number of villages.

Cut out :

1. Exclude

I'm CUTTING OUT salt from my diet.

2. When an engine or motor stops

The car CUT OUT at the traffic lights just as they went green.

3. Cut a picture or similar from a magazine, etc

I CUT some pictures OUT to use as visual aids.

Cut out on : Let down, snub

Although he'd promised to help, the star CUT OUT ON the charity when offered more money.

Cut up :

1. Cut into smaller pieces

After cutting the tree down, the logger CUT it UP into logs.

2. Drive into a neighboring lane, directly in front of another vehicle

I was just driving onto the motorway slip-road, when a red Mini CUT me UP and I had to brake suddenly to avoid an accident.

3. Upset

Her reaction really CUT me UP.

4. Have a lot of small injuries

I CUT my hand UP when I broke the glass. Phrasal Verbs| Grammar| Phrasal Verbs to HOME PAGE

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