This is a page on American Revolution. In 1783, a new nation was born – the United States of American. Its struggle for independence is called the American Revolution. It began in 1775 when 13 American colonies went to war against Britain. Britain governed the colonies and imposed high taxes. The colonies who were not represented in the British parliament, resented the taxes. Protests and demonstrations broke out and the colonists formed a continental congress to negotiate with Britain. A skirmish led to war and in 1776, the American colonists inspired by ideals of freedom declared independence. The British surrendered in 1781 and two years later recognized the new country. American Revolution resulted in formation of a new nation United States of American.
The canonists set their own taxes. But in 1765, Britain introduced a stamp tax on legal documents. The angry canonist stated that Taxation without representation is tyranny. They refused to buy British goods.
Boston Tea Party:
Britain withdrew the stamp tax, but set others on glass and tea. Three groups of protesters, dressed as Mohawk Indians, boarded tea ships in Boston Harbor and threw their cargo into the water.
Lexington and Concord:
In April 1775, the war began with skirmishes near Lexington and Concord. American patriots forced the British to windrow at Lexington. They marched back to Boston under continuous fire.
Paul Rover (1735 – 18180 rode through Massachusetts on the night of 18 April 1775 to warn that the British were coming. He was part of an anti – British group called the Sons of Liberty.
After the Revolution, Britain’s 13 original colonies formed the first 13 states of the new United States.
A planter from Virginia, Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826) attended the Continental Congress in 1775. He drafted the Declaration of Independency, reformed the laws of his native state and went on diplomatic missions to Europe. He became the third president of the USA in 1801 and served until 1809.
Surrender at Yorktown:
The fighting lasted until April 1781 when the colonists cut the British off from their supplies at Yorktown. They finally surrendered on 19 October.
Declaration of Independence:
On 4 July 1776 the 13 colonies signed the Declaration of Independence. This document stated that All Men Are Created Equal and its belief in Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. This statement later inspired the French Resolution.
The commander of the colonial army was George Washington (1732 – 1799). He was an inspiring general who kept the morale of his troops high in spite of several defeats at the beginning of the war. When France joined the war on the colonial side in 1778, followed by Spain in 1779, victory was assured.
The war lasted for six years. Washington’s leadership played a vital part in the American victory. He led his troops to victories at Brandywine (1777) and Yorktown (1781).
The Opposing Armies:
The British were well trained but poorly led. Their orders came from 4,000 km (2,500miles) away. The Americans were less well trained and equipped, but knew the terrain and had good leaders.
1765: Britain introduces the stamp tax. Protests break out. Britain withdraws the stamp tax, but other taxes remain.
1773: Boston tea Party. Americans, dressed as Mohawks, dump tea in Boston Harbor as a protest against heavy taxes.
1774 – 75: Continental Congress. Representatives draft a petition to Britain insisting on no taxation without representation.
1775: Battle of Lexington. Congress takes over government of the colonies and appoints Washington Commander–In-Chief.
1777: British general John Burgoyne (1722 – 92) forced to surrender at Saratoga.
1778 France joins the war on the American side.
1781: British surrender at Yorktown. This is the history of American Revolution which resulted in formation of a new nation United States of American.
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