Forming Plurals : Grammar and Spelling Tips
The usual way to form a plural is to add an -s.
Examples : dogs, popes, cats, houses, books
If the word ends in -ch, --s, -sh, -x, -z, then add -es.
Examples : branches, masses, bushes, boxes, chintzes.
Most words that end in -for -fe change the ending to -ves (e.g. wives, calves), although there are exceptions (e.g. beliefs, chiefs, dwarfs, gulfs, proofs, roofs).
For words that end in a vowel -y, add -s.
Examples : days, boys
If a word ends in a consonant -y, change the -y to -ies.
Examples : babies, spies
Words that end in -o normally just add -s. But there is a group of words that add -oes. These include buffaloes, dominoes, echoes, goes, grottoes, haloes, heroes, mangoes, mosquitoes, potatoes, tomatoes, tornadoes, torpedoes, vetoes, and volcanoes.
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