Glossary





The Glossary-The list of the important words related to English-has been given here for your reference.

Active:

In an active clause or active sentence, the grammatical subject is the person or thing that performs the action given in the verb.
Example:
Clinton wrote the book.
COMPARE: PASSIVE.

Adjective:

A word that describes a noun or a pronoun
Example:
He is an intelligent boy.

Adjective Phrase:

A group of words where the main word is an adjective and which does the function of an adjective.
Example:
It was not strong enough.

Adverb:

A word that describes or gives more information about a verb or an adjective or another adverb
Example:
He ran quickly.
This is an extremely expensive car.

Adverbial Clause:

A type of subordinate clause that says when, how, where etc… something happens.
Example:
Before I went to school this morning, I did my homework.

Adverbial Phrase:

A group of words that says when, how, where etc...
Example:
With a great deal of noise, they went around the town.

Affirmative sentence:
A statement that is positive, not negative.
Example:
He has achieved this honor.

Agent:
A person or a thing that performs the action described in the verb.
Usually it is the subject in an active clause and comes after “by" in a passive clause.

Auxiliary verb:

The verbs be, have, and do when they are used with a main verb to form questions, negatives, tenses, passive forms etc…
Modal verbs are also auxiliary verbs.
Example:
You be here till I come back.
REFER: MODAL VERB

Clause:

A group of words that contains a verb.
A clause may be a complete sentence or a part of sentence.
Example:
While I was in New York, He had gone to Japan.

Complement:

A word or a phrase that describes the subject or an object
Example:
Linda is a lawyer.
I found the food inedible.

Completion:

A completion is an adverbial phrase or a prepositional phrase which completes the meaning of the verb
Example:
The disease originated in Britain.
(‘The disease originated’ will be incomplete)

Compound noun:

A compound noun consists of two or more words together used as a noun
Example:
The language-school is closed today.

Compound adjective:

A compound adjective consists of two or more words together used as an adjective
Example:
They were well-behaved.

Conditional clause:

A conditional clause usually starts with ‘if’ but other but other patterns are possible
Example:
If you come with me, I am prepared to attend the wedding-function.

Conditional sentence:

A conditional sentence is a sentence which has a conditional clause.
Example:
If you come with me, I am prepared to attend the wedding-function.

Conjunction:

A word which connects two parts in sentence is called a conjunction.
The words such as and, but, if, while, after etc are called conjunctions.
Example:
You can come to this town after your father transferred to another town.

Countable noun:

A countable noun is a noun which can be counted.
It can be either singular or plural.
Uncountable noun does not have the plural form.
Example:
Three students have passed the examination.
COMPARE: UNCOUNTABLE NOUN

Determiner:

A word that goes in front of a noun to identify what the noun refers to
Example:
This pencil is not mine.

Direct speech:

Speech that is written using the exact words of the speaker, without any changes
Example:
Clinton said, “This university was the one in which he wanted to study".
COMPARE: REPORTED SPEECH

Dynamic verb:

A verb that describes an action
Example:
He walked 15kms.
COMPARE: STATE VERB

Finite verb:

A verb that has a tense
Example:
They went to meet their master.
COMPARE: NON-FINITE VERB

Imperative clause:

An imperative clause uses the bare-infinite form of a verb for such things as giving order and making suggestions
Example:
Go to bed.

Indirect speech:

Speech that is reported without using the exact words of the speaker
This is also called reported speech.
Example:
Clinton told us that Mr. John would not attend the function.
COMPARE: DIRECT SPEECH
REFER: REPORTED SPEECH

Infinite verb:

Infinite verb usually goes after ‘to’.
The form may be either ‘to-infinite’ or ‘bare-infinite’.
Example:
He liked to sing in the function.

Intransitive verb:

A verb that take an object
Example:
She smiled.
COMPARE: TRANSITIVE VERB

Inversion:

Changing the usual word order so that the verb comes before the subject
Example:
The balloon went up.
Up went the balloon.

Linking verb:

A verb that connects the subject with its complement
Example:
He became a doctor as he wished.

Modal verb:

A verb that gives information about such things as possibility, necessity or obligation
Can, could, dare, may, might, must, need and ought are few of the modal verbs.
Example:
He may come.

Noun:

A noun refers to a person, a place, a thing, a quality etc…
Example:
Clinton is the chairman of this company.
REFER: PROPER NOUN

Noun phrase:

A group of words where the main word is a noun
Example:
We spoke to several small children.

Object:

The person or thing affected by the action of the verb.
Example:
I put the book back on the shelf.
COMPARE: SUBJECT

Participle:

The participle is the other versions of verbs.
Example:
Smoking is prohibited here.
Eaten by the remorse, he took doctor advices.

Past participle:

Past Participle is the ‘-ed’ form of the verb.
Example:
He was liked by all of his friends.

Present participle:

The ‘-ing’ form of the verb is called present participle
Example:
Smoking is prohibited here.

Proper noun:

The name of a particular person
Example:
Clinton is an old man.

Passive:

In a passive clause or a passive sentence, a grammatical subject is the person or a thing that experiences the effect of the action given in the verb
Example:
This book was written by Clinton.
COMPARE: ACTIVE

Performative verb:

A verb that states the action that is performed when the speaker uses the verb
Example:
I promise I will do it tomorrow.

Personal pronoun:

The seven pronouns as such are personal pronouns. I, we, he, she, it, you and they are they.
Example:
You can do it.

Possessive:

The possessive form of the verb ends either -‘s or s’.
Example:
This is Clinton’s car.
The boys’ books are damaged.

Preposition:

A word such as in, on, by or above that comes before a noun or a pronoun or a noun-phrase is called preposition.
Example:
The pen is on the table.

Prepositional phrase:

A group of words that consists of a preposition and its prepositional object
Example:
Behind our house, you could find a tree.

Pronoun:

A word that is used instead of a noun or a noun-phrase
Example:
We are students of this college.

Qualifier:

A word or a phrase that goes front a noun or a noun-phrase to talk about the quantity of something
Example:
A little water is enough for this plant.
Ten students have been elected.

Relative clause:

A kind of subordinate clause that describes a noun that comes before it in a main clause
Example:
My bicycle, which I have left before your house, is twenty years old.

Reflexive pronoun:

The type of pronoun which says about itself
Example:
He himself came forward to teach us English.

Relative pronoun:

A pronoun which is used at the beginning of a relative clause
Example:
I do not know who committed this mistake.

Reported speech:

Speech that is reported without using the exact words of the speaker
This is also called indirect speech.
Example:
Clinton told us that Mr. John would not attend the function.
COMPARE: DIRECT SPEECH
REFER: INDIRECT SPEECH

Reporting clause:

A statement that reports what people think or say is often divided into reporting clause and reported clause
Example:
She said that the building was unsafe.

Reported clause:

A statement that reports what people think or say is often divided into reporting clause and reported clause
Example:
She said that the building was unsafe.

Simple sentence:

A sentence consisting of one clause
Example:
You are welcome.

State verb:

A verb that is used to describe a state rather than an action
Example:
We believe that you are the best.
COMPARE: ACTIVE VERB

Subject:

The person or the thing that does the action of the verb
Example:
The animals are grazing in the field.
COMPARE: OBJECT

Subjunctive:

The subjunctive is the set of verb forms used, mainly in rather formal English to talk about possibilities rather than a fact.
Example:
We recommend that he be given the job.

Transitive verb:

A verb that takes an object
Example:
She is holding a bunch of flowers.

Two-word verb:

The verb which contains two words
Example:
She looked after her parents.

Three-word verb:

The verb which contains three words
Example:
He looked up to his older brothers.
REFER: PREPOSITIUONAL VERB

Prepositional verb:

The verb which uses preposition
Example:
He looked up to his older brothers.
REFER: THREE-WORD VERB

Phrasal verb:

The verb which uses a phrase
Example:
He looked upto his older brothers.
REFER: PREPOSITIONAL VERB

Wh-word:

A word that is used in wh- questions
Example:
Who is your wife?

Wh-question:

A question that begins with wh-
Example:
Where are you going?

Yes/no question:

A question that can be answered with yes or no
Example:
Do you like coffee?

This Glossary contains all the words for which you could find the definitions in their respective section.

This Glossary will be expanded as and when new words and their definitions are brought to our attention.


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