Nationalization :

The distinguishing feature of the political world today is the disappearance of the monarchy in many countries of the world and the appearance of popular governments in them. It is a new venture which is still young. The ideal of monarchy had held the field for many centuries. The new popular governments that are on the saddle in many countries cannot boast of such a long record or illustrious pedigree.

Three distinct types stand out unpopular management of nationalizations --- the democratic form, the socialistic form and the communistic form. The advanced nations of the west--- the U.S.A., Great Britain and France are all democracies. Even where the monarchy survives as in Norway, Sweden and Belgium, there is a democratic set-up. The communist form exists in the U.S.S.R. and her allies.

The supporters of Nationalization urge that in as much as all the people of the country have to be engaged in work (i.e., kept employed) and the profits of the undertakings made viable to the state, Nationalization is necessary. Under nationalizations, the state dictates the procedure and mops up the profits. The laborers would have no options but to merely obey and accept what the state awards them by way of wages.

The democratic form depends upon the will of the people as exercised through votes in elections. Different parties contest the elections. The governments run according to parliamentary traditions. Private Capital and enterprise form the backbone of the system. In socialist and communist countries, the power is largely in the hands of the socialist or communist party. The socialist and the communists believe in Nationalization - that is taking over and managing of industries, mines, transport, banks - in fact all the vital aspects of industry and commerce.

Those who oppose nationalization point out its inherent defects. First nationalization saps private initiative and enterprise. Secondly, it reduces human efforts to a dead monotonous level. Thirdly, it makes sheep of people who gradually drift to conditions of being led. Fourthly, it inhibits the enthusiasm of the people. So to say, according to the opponents of nationalism, the people will become slaves of the state.

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