X Club : Encyclopedia

X Club private scientific dining club of Victorian London, remarkable for the power that its nine members exerted on the scientific and cultural climate of late-19th-century England.

Dining clubs were common in gentlemanly society of the time. The X Club met monthly in the London “season” (October to June), from November 1864 until March 1892. Its members were Joseph Dalton Hooker, eminent botanist and probably founder of the club; T.H. Huxley, biologist; John Tyndall, experimental physicist; John Lubbock, banker, ethnologist, and entomologist; William Spottiswoode, Queen's Printer and amateur mathematician; Edward Frankland, a leading chemist; George Busk, retired surgeon, comparative anatomist, and microscopist; T.A. Hirst, mathematician; and Herbert Spencer, sociologist and philosopher of evolution.

Rejecting the traditions of British natural theology and the privileges of the established church and its educational institutions, the X Club represented the naturalistic movement in science. The natural order, its members believed, is a deterministic order of cause and effect to be investigated by science; there may be mysteries beyond the scope of science, but, if so, they are beyond knowledge and are thus “unknowable.” The obvious practical benefits of science, they argued, demonstrated that industrial society needed more scientific advice and scientific employees. Nevertheless, they added, the highest benefits of science are intellectual—scientific reasoning trains the mind as effectively as a classical education and leads to a true understanding of the natural world. On the basis of these principles, X Club members claimed cultural leadership for scientists (rather than the clergy), defended Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution, campaigned for government support for science and jobs for scientists, and demanded a place for science at all levels of education.

The scientific eminence, social status, hard work, and political astuteness of the X Club's members were all essential to the group's success. By electing one another to office and through effective networking, these men were influential in scientific societies and became leading advisers to the government. As popular lecturers, contributors to elite journals, and textbook writers, they were among the prime interpreters of science for the industrializing and secularizing society of Victorian England.

Additional Reading :

Ruth Barton, “ ‘Huxley, Lubbock, and Half a Dozen Others': Professionals and Gentlemen in the Formation of the X Club, 1851–1864,” Isis, 89(3):410–444 (September 1998), discusses the interests and purposes that brought the group together.

Two articles survey the importance of the club:

Roy MacLeod, “The X-Club: A Social Network of Science in Late-Victorian England,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 24(2):305–322 (April 1970), is the fuller account; J. Vernon Jensen, “The X Club: Fraternity of Victorian Scientists,” The British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 5, part 1, no. 17, pp. 63–72 (June 1970), is also useful.

Ruth Barton, “ ‘An Influential Set of Chaps': The X-Club and Royal Society Politics 1864–85,” The British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 23, part 1, no. 76, pp. 53–81 (March 1990), details how club members achieved and used power within the Royal Society.

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