Adverbial Modifiers




Adverbial Modifiers :


Complements, being either substantives or adjectives, may be modified in various ways.

1. A substantive used as a complement may have the same kinds of modifiers that are used with the subject.

2. An adjective complement admits only adverbial modifiers.

The following sentences illustrate the modifiers of substantive complements.

1. Herbert lost a gold watch. [The direct object (watch) is modified by the adjectives a and gold.]

2. The duke built towers of marble. [The direct object (towers) is modified by the adjective phrase of marble.]

3. My father built the house in which I was born. [The direct object (house) is modified by the adjective the and the adjective clause in which I was born.]

4. I saw a man running across the field. [The direct object (man) is modified by the adjective a and the participle running.]

5. You have forfeited your right to vote. [The direct object (right) is modified by the possessive pronoun your and the infinitive to vote.]

6. I have seen Henry’s brother. [The direct object (brother) is modified by the possessive noun Henry’s.]

7. I must ask my brother, the mayor. [The direct object (brother) is modified by the possessive pronoun my and the appositive mayor.]

8. The guild has elected Walter honorary president. [The predicate objective (president) is modified by the adjective honorary.]

9. Her husband is an old soldier. [The predicate nominative (soldier) is modified by the adjectives an and old.]

10. Her sons are veterans of the Franco-Prussian war. [The predicate nominative (veterans) is modified by the adjective phrase of the Franco-Prussian war.]

11. They are rivals in business. [The predicate nominative (rivals) is modified by the adjective phrase in business.]

12. The author is Will Jewell, who was formerly editor of “The Pioneer." [The predicate nominative (Will Jewell) is modified by the adjective clause who was formerly editor, etc.]

13. Baldwin is the man standing under the tree. [The predicate nominative (man) is modified by the adjective the and the participle standing.]

14. Your chief fault is your inclination to procrastinate. [The predicate nominative (inclination) is modified by the possessive pronoun your and the infinitive to procrastinate.]

15. This man is Gretchen’s brother. [The predicate nominative (brother) is modified by the possessive noun Gretchen’s.]

16. The first to fall was the bugler, John Wilson. [The predicate nominative (bugler) is modified by the adjective the and the appositive John Wilson.]

Adjective clauses are very common as modifiers of substantive complements.

1. Have you lost the watch that your cousin gave you?

2. This is the very spot where the temple of Saturn stood.

3. The general issued an order that all non-combatants should be treated well.

4. We have abundant proof that during his stay on the Continent, Bacon did not neglect literary and scientific pursuits.

An adjective used as a complement may be modified by an adverb, an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause.

1. I am very sorry for you. [Sorry is modified by the adverb very and the adverbial phrase for you.]

2. Charles seems {rather | very | extremely} angry.

3. The road is rough {in places. | where they are repairing it.}

4. The whole tribe appeared eager for war.

5. He grew envious of his successful rival.

6. Be zealous in every righteous cause.

7. The chief’s face looked dark with passion.

8. He was selfish beyond belief. [The predicate adjective (selfish) is modified by the adverbial phrase beyond belief.]

9. Ellen seemed desirous that her friends should admire her.

10. The secretary appeared unwilling to resign.


Adverbial Modifiers :







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