Grammar is the science which treats of Language. We say that Arithmetic is the science which treats of numbers, Botany is the science which treats of plants and Astronomy is the science which treats of the stars. So, Grammar is the science which treats of language. Knowledge on any subject, arranged in some regular order, is called a Science. The words which a people use in speaking or writing are called a Language. The object of studying Grammar is to be able to understand, speak and write a language correctly. Grammar is divided into four parts namely, ORTHOGRAPHY, ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX and PROSODY. Orthography treats of Letters, Etymology of Words, Syntax of Sentences and Prosody of Versification.
THE first part of Grammar is called ORTHOGRAPHY.
Orthography treats of LETTERS.
LETTERS TAKEN SEPARATELY
Letters are written characters or signs used to represent certain sounds of the human voice. A letter that is not sounded in speaking is called a silent letter. The letters of any Language are called its Alphabet. The English Alphabet contains twenty-six letters. Letters are divided into VOWELS and CONSONANTS. A Vowel may be fully sounded by itself. A Consonant cannot be fully sounded unless in connection with a vowel.
The VOWELS are a, e, i, o and u and sometimes w and y.