Moscow Conference :
The Moscow Conference was held on 30 October 1943 in which representatives of the USA. UK, USSR and China signed the Moscow Declaration pledging that the United Nations shall be open to all nations who would be treated as equals.
On 1st December 1943, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin met in Teheran and signed the Teheran Declaration which was considered to be an important step in the formation of the United Nations.
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
The real work of founding the United Nations began at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington - DC. The Conference took place from 21 August to 7 October – 1944 and was attended by representatives of UK, USA. USSR and China. They endorsed the name of the new organization of their vision as The United Nations.
On 11 February 1945, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin again met at Yalta along with their Foreign Ministers and military chiefs to finally decide on the creation of the world organization.
San Francisco Conference
At the next meeting in San Francisco from 25 April to 26 June 1945, the United Nations Charter (description of functions) was drawn up. The UN Charter was approved and signed by delegates of 51 countries representing 80 per cent of the world population on 26 June 1945.
The Charter, however, came into force on 24 October 1945 with the acceptance of the objectives and functions of the UN by a majority of the members who attended the
San Francisco Conference. Thus was born the United Nations which symbolizes the aspirations of mankind for peace and progress.
Objectives and Principles of United Nations
The objectives of the United Nations as set forth in the Charter are…
(i) to maintain international peace and security based on respect for the principle of equal human rights and self-determination of peoples.
(ii) to develop friendly relations among nations.
(iii) to cooperate in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character.
(iv) to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in achieving these ends.
(v) to protect environment & to justify use of natural resource.
The United Nations act in accordance with the following Principals.
1. All member states are sovereign and equal.
2. All are pledged to fulfill their obligations under the Charter in good faith.
3. All are pledged to settle their international disputes by peaceful means and without endangering international peace, security and justice.
4. They are to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against any other state.
5. They are to give the UN every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the Charter.
6. The United Nations shall not intervene in matters which are essentially domestic ones of any state except when it is acting to enforce international peace.
Moscow Conference :
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