21st July

The events happened on 21st July are :

1861 : First Battle of Bull Run : The First Battle of Bull Run (called First Manassas by the South) was fought this day during the American Civil War. Although neither army was adequately prepared at this early stage of the war, political considerations and popular pressures caused the Federal government to order General Irvin McDowell to advance southwest of Washington to Bull Run in a move against Richmond, Virginia. The Union army assaulted the Confederates under the command of General P.G.T. Beauregard, and the battle raged back and forth until the arrival of the last replacements commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston forced the Federals into a disorganized retreat to Washington, D.C.

1983 : The world's lowest recorded temperature, −128.6 °F (−89.2 °C), was measured at Vostok Station, Antarctica.

1967 : Albert John Luthuli, president of the African National Congress (1952–60) and the first African to be awarded a Nobel Prize for Peace (1960), died after being struck by a train.

1961 : Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom became the second American to enter space during Project Mercury.

1954 : The Geneva Accords effectively divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel.

1798 : Napoleon Bonaparte's Army of Egypt defeated the Egyptians led by Murād Bey in the Battle of the Pyramids.

1774 : The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca was signed at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74.

1613 : Michael Romanov was crowned tsar of Russia, founding the Romanov dynasty.

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