23rd June

The events happened on 22nd June are :

1314 : Battle of Bannockburn : The Scots under Robert the Bruce defeated the English under Edward II, regained their independence, and established Bruce on the throne as Robert I at the Battle of Bannockburn, which began on this day. By the time of the battle, all of Scotland had been cleared of English troops with the exception of Stirling Castle, to whose defense Edward rode with a large army. Bruce positioned his smaller force at the new park a mile or two south of Stirling, and there the trees hampered the attack by the superior English cavalry.

1961 : The Antarctic Treaty was enacted, reserving the entire continent for free and nonpolitical scientific investigation.

1925 : An expedition under A.H. MacCarthy and H.F. Lambert became the first to reach the summit of Mount Logan, the second highest mountain in North America.

1865 : The Cherokee chief and Confederate general Stand Watie surrendered at the close of the American Civil War, becoming one of the last Confederate commanders to do so.

1817 : Popular English actor John Philip Kemble retired after his last performance, as Coriolanus.

1298 : German King Adolf of Nassau was deposed in favour of Albert I.

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