An adjective is a word that tells us something about a noun.
A noun may have many attributes.
Boy is a noun.
That boy may be tall or short, intelligent or fool, educated or uneducated, rich or poor.
What is the quality of that boy?
In order to express the quality of that boy, we have to use an adjective.
"That boy is a rich boy".
In this sentence, the word “rich" indicates that the boy is a rich boy.
That means that the boy has a lot of money.
Those words which tell us about the quality of the nouns (which might have been used either as the subject or the object) are called adjectives.
• America is a country.
• America is a rich country. (“rich" is an adjective)
• Nile is a river.
• Nile is a long river.(“long" is an adjective)
• Harvard is the name of a university.
• Harvard is the name of the oldest university. (“Oldest" is an adjective)
• She is a student.
• She is a beautiful student. (“Beautiful" is an adjective)
• Water is an element.
• Water is one of the essential elements. (“essential" is an adjective)
Other sentences written with adjectives:
• London is a large city.
• Jacob is an honest man.
• We have had enough exercises.
• There has not been sufficient rain this year.
• The hand has five fingers.
• Most boys like cricket.
An adjective will come before a noun.
It will not come before a verb.
1. Adjectives of quality:
Good, honest, old, big etc…
• Their good performance in their final examinations gave them what they expected.
• Mr. Antonio is an honest policeman.
• Our Chairman is an old man.
• The big temple might have been constructed a long time back.
• Their excellent presentation bagged them the first prize.
2. Adjectives of quantity:
Little, some, much, enough etc…
• I know little about music.
• Adding some sugar will make the coffee tastier.
• We have enough study-materials for the forth-coming examinations.
3. Definitive numeral adjectives:
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven etc..
• One student came forward to become a leader of this class.
• Two children make a perfect family.
• Four subjects of “Management Studies" are very difficult.
• Ten employees have resigned their jobs.
4. Indefinite numeral adjectives:
All, no, many, few, several etc…
• All the employees have to be here by 10am tomorrow.
• No one will be exempted from paying the monthly due.
• Few birds have become extinct.
• It rained several days continuously.
5. Distributive numeral adjectives:
Each, every, either, neither etc…
• Each one of you should support this cause.
• I mean that every employee has stake in the growth of this company.
• Either of you should take care of your child.
• Neither of you can go away from other.
6. Demonstrative adjectives:
This, that, these, those, such etc…
• This dog is ours.
• That gentleman donated his fortunes to a charitable trust.
• These flowers are not for sales.
7. Interrogative adjectives :
What, which, whose, when etc…
• What happened after I came out of the house is not known to me.
• Which team won the match is not our problem.
• Whose child is this is a mystery.
8. Adjectival Phrase:
Sometimes a phrase may be used as an adjective. In that case the phrase is called adjectival phrase.
Very often this adjectival phrase appears after the noun that it qualifies.
In the following sentences, the adjectival phrases are colored blue.
• The chief lived in house built-of-stone.
• A friend in need is a friend indeed.
• A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
• He was a student of great promise.
9. Adjectival Clause:
Often a full-clause may add meaning to a noun in which case it is known as an adjectival clause.
In the following sentences the adjectival clauses are colored blue.
• Nehru was a statesman whom everyone responded.
• The house which caught fire is in the street.
• John is the boy