The Dictionary meaning of the term Analogy is similarity, likeness or sameness.
The following example will make it simple for you to understand what it is.
The Mathematical Form of expressing an analogy is 2 : 4 :: 5 : 10
In this example, there are two pairs of numbers (2, 4) and (5, 10).
A colon sign divides each pair of numbers, while two colon signs divide the two pairs themselves.
The above mathematical statement means that the number 2 has the same relationship to the number 4 as the number 5 has to the number 10.
You can easily recognize the relationship which is that the first number in each pair is equal to half of the second number in the pair.
This way, the above mathematical equation means that 2 is half of 4 just as 5 is half of 10.
Another example is:
3 : 9 : : 7 : 21
In this example also there are two pairs of numbers.
The relationship is the first number in each pair is one third of the second number in that particular pair.
3 is one third of 9 just as 7 is one third of 21.
Now these two examples might have made the point clear to you.
We feel that now you are clear about what it is.
A verbal analogy follows the same logic except, instead of numbers, words are used to express the Analogical relationship.
A typical verbal analogy is:
Kitten : cat : : pup : dog
You can easily understand and appreciate the relationship in this statement.
A kitten is a young cat, just as a pup is a young dog.
There are various types of analogies.
The step-by-step method for you to answer the analogy question:
i. The first step is to recognize the logical relationship between given pair of words.
ii. The next step is to form in your mind a simple linking sentence which logically expresses the logical relationship.
iii. The next step is to form a similar linking sentence with each of the five pairs in the answer choices and test each such sentence for logical validity.
iv. If you had formed your linking sentence correctly, you will find that four of the five similar sentences that you form with the five pairs in the answer choices do not make logical sense.
v. The final step is to select that choice with reference to which your sentence makes a logical sense, and make that as the answer to the question.
The Common Instructions for the Questions of Analogy:
In the following questions, a related pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered (A,B,C,D & E) pair of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.