A false analogy underlies the philosophy of classical liberalizers. According to this analogy, as the individual is to the nation-state, so the nation-state is to the international community. Woodrow Wilson articulated this idea when he said that nations must be “governed in their conduct toward each other by the same principles that govern the individual citizens of all modern nations”. The analogy suggests that each nation has a unitary national will, expressed in the results of its elections. This leads to difficulties in the case of non-democratic nations, but it leads to even more pervasive misunderstandings of democratic nations, those which have apparently representative electoral systems. The acceptance of these two specious assumptions leads to the seeming inexplicability of reversals in diplomatic negotiations, with the leadership of one nation failing to recognize that no single issue is of vital importance to another nation, but only to certain factions within that nation.
[The difficult words in this passage are articulated (expressed), pervasive (widespread), specious (misleading), inexplicable (unexplainable) and factions (groups)]
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that those who accept the assumptions of the philosophy of classical liberalism are likely to do which of the following?
I. Assume that a nation can express an undivided will
II. Favor a dictatorial form of government
III. Fail to anticipate abrupt changes in nations’ policies
(A) I only
(B) I and II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I , II and III
This is a ‘Roman Numerals’ question, for which the key phrase is ‘those who accept the assumptions of the philosophy of classical liberalism’. In the very first sentence, the author equates ‘philosophy of classical liberalism’ with the analogy “individual : nation state :: nation state : international community”. In lines 5-7, the author says, “This analogy suggests that each nation has a unitary national will”. So, I is true.
In lines 7-9, the author says that this analogy creates difficulties both in the case of nondemocratic and democratic governments. We cannot deduce from this that the classical liberals favour a dictatorial form of government. So, II is not true.
In lines 9-11, the author says, “The acceptance of these two specious assumptions leads to the seeming inexplicability of reversals in diplomatic negotiations….”, which means ‘failure to anticipate abrupt changes in a nation’s policies because of the change of government in it’. Thus, III is true.
So, (C) is the answer.
For the next question also, this same passage will appear.
GMAT-Model Questions Index