1484 : Witchcraft condemned by Pope Innocent VIII. : Innocent VIII condemned witchcraft this day in 1484 via papal bull, and subsequently he dispatched inquisitors to Germany to try witches and persecuted a chief exponent of Renaissance Platonism, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola.
1955 : The American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) became a united body of autonomous labour unions.
1947 : American boxer Joe Louis defended his heavyweight title against challenger Jersey Joe Walcott in New York City.
1933 : Utah became the 36th U.S. state to ratify the Twenty-first Amendment, repealing Prohibition.
1791 : Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna at age 35.
1784 : Phillis Wheatley, the first African American woman poet of note in the United States, died in Boston.
1782 : Martin Van Buren, who served as the eighth president of the United States (1837–41) and was one of the founders of the Democratic Party, was born.
1757 : In his greatest victory, Prussian King Frederick II (the Great) defeated the Austrians at Leuthen during the Seven Years' War.