The Nature of English Language




The Nature of English Language :


Language is the expression of thought by means of spoken or written words. The English word
language comes (through the French langue) from the Latin lingua - the tongue. But the tongue is not the only organ used in speaking. The lips, the teeth, the roof of the mouth, the soft palate (or uvula), the nose and the vocal chords all help to produce the sounds of which language consists. These various organs make up one delicate and complicated piece of mechanism upon which the breath of the speaker acts like that of a musician upon a clarinet or other wind instrument.

Spoken language is composed of a great variety of sounds made with the vocal organs. A word may consist of one sound (as Ah! or O or I), but most words consist of two or more different sounds (as go, see, try, finish). Long or short, however, a word is merely a sign made to express thought.

Thought may be imperfectly expressed by signs made with the head, the hands, etc. Thus, if I grasp a person’s arm and point to a dog, he may understand me to ask, “Do you see that dog?" And his nod in reply may stand for “Yes, I see him." But any dialogue carried on in this way must be both fragmentary and uncertain. To express our thoughts fully, freely and accurately, we must use words - that is….signs made with the voice. Such voice-signs have had meanings associated with them by custom or tradition, so that their sense is at once understood by all. Their advantage is twofold…..they are far more numerous and varied than other signs and the meanings attached to them are much more definite than those of nods and gestures.

Written words are signs made with the pen to represent and recall to the mind the spoken words (or voice-signs). Written language (that is, composition) must, of necessity, be somewhat fuller than spoken language as well as more formal and exact. For the reader’s understanding is not assisted by the tones of the voice, the changing expressions of the face and the lively gestures which help to make spoken language intelligible.

Most words are the signs of definite ideas. Thus, Charles, captain, cat, mouse, bread, stone, cup, ink, call up images or pictures of persons or things; strike, dive, climb, dismount, express particular kinds of action; green, blue, careless, rocky, triangular, muscular, enable us to describe objects with accuracy. Even general terms like goodness, truth, courage, cowardice, generosity, have sufficiently precise meanings, for they name qualities or traits of character with which everybody is familiar.

By the use of such words, even when not combined in groups, we can express our thoughts much more satisfactorily than by mere gestures. The utterance of the single word “Charles!" may signify…“Hullo, Charles! Are you here? I am surprised to see you." “Bread!" may suggest to the hearer….“Give me bread! I am very hungry." “Courage!" may be almost equivalent to, “Don’t be down-hearted! Your troubles will soon be over."

Language, however, is not confined to the utterance of single words. To express our thoughts we must put words together. We must combine them into groups and such groups have settled meanings (just as words have), established (like the meanings of single words) by the customs or habits of the particular language that we are speaking or writing. Further, these groups are not thrown together haphazard. We must construct them in accordance with certain fixed rules. Otherwise we shall fail to express ourselves clearly and acceptably and we may even succeed in saying the opposite of what we mean.

In constructing these groups (which we call phrases, clauses and sentences) we have the aid of a large number of short words like and, if, by, to, in, is and was which are very different from the definite and picturesque words that we have just examined. They do not call up distinct images in the mind and we should find it hard to define any of them. Yet their importance in the expression of thought is clear…for they serve to join other words together and to show their relation to each other in those groups which make up connected speech.

Thus, BOX HEAVY conveys some meaning…but “The box is heavy" is a clear and definite statement. The shows that some particular box is meant and is enables us to make an assertion about it. And, in “Charles and John are my brothers," indicates that Charles and John are closely connected in my thought and that what I say of one applies also to the other. If, in “If Charles comes, I shall be glad to see him," connects two statements and shows that one of them is a mere supposition (for Charles may or may not come).

In grouping words, our language has three different ways of indicating their relations.

(1) The forms of the words themselves

(2) Their order

(3) The use of little words like and, if, is, etc.

Change of Form :

Words may change their form. Thus…

The word boy becomes boys when more than one is meant.

Kill becomes killed when past time is referred to.

Was becomes were when we are speaking of two or more persons or things.

Fast becomes faster when a higher degree of speed is indicated.

Such change of form is called inflection and the word is said to be inflected.

Inflection is an important means of showing the relations of words in connected speech. In “Henry’s racket weighs fourteen ounces," the form Henry’s shows at once the relation between Henry and the racket,—namely, that Henry owns or possesses it. The word Henry, then, may change its form to Henry’s to indicate ownership or possession.

Order of Words :

In “John struck Charles," the way in which the words are arranged shows who it was that struck and who received the blow. Change the order of words to “Charles struck John," and the meaning is reversed. It is, then, the order that shows the relation of John to struck and of struck to Charles.

Use of Other Words :

Compare the two sentences.

The train from Boston has just arrived.

The train for Boston has just arrived.

Here from and for show the relation between the train and Boston. “The Boston train" might mean either the train from Boston or the train for Boston. By using from or for we make the sense unmistakable.

Two matters, then, are of vital importance in language…..the forms of words and the relations of words. The science which treats of these two matters is called grammar.

Inflection is a change in the form of a word indicating some change in its meaning. The relation in which a word stands to other words in the sentence is called its construction. Grammar is the science which treats of the forms and the constructions of words. Syntax is that department of grammar which treats of the constructions of words. Grammar, then, may be said to concern itself with two main subjects - inflection and syntax.

English belongs to a family of languages - the Indo-European Family - which is rich in forms of inflection. This richness may be seen in other members of the family such as Greek or Latin. The Latin word homo, “man," for example, has eight different inflectional forms,—homo, “a man"; hominis, “of a man"; homini, “to a man," and so on. Thus, in Latin, the grammatical construction of a word is, in general, shown by that particular inflectional ending (or termination) which it has in any particular sentence.

In the Anglo-Saxon period, English was likewise well furnished with such inflectional endings, though not so abundantly as Latin. Many of these, however, had disappeared by Chaucer’s time (1340–1400) and still others have since been lost, so that modern English is one of the least inflected of languages. Such losses are not to be lamented. By due attention to the order of words, and by using of, to, for, from, in, and the like, we can express all the relations denoted by the ancient inflections. The gain in simplicity is enormous.


Our Sincere Thanks to….

George Lyman Kittredge (Harvard University)

Frank Edgar Farley (Wesleyan University)

GINN and COMPANY


  1. English Grammar and Usage
  2. General Principles of English Language
  3. The Parts of Speech in The Sentence
  4. The Sentence
  5. The Parts of Speech
  6. Nouns
  7. Pronouns
  8. Adjectives
  9. Verbs
  10. Adverbs
  11. Prepositions
  12. Conjunctions
  13. Interjections
  14. The Same Word as Different Parts of Speech
  15. Nouns and Adjectives
  16. Nouns and Verbs
  17. Adjectives and Adverbs
  18. Adjectives and Pronouns
  19. Adverbs and Prepositions
  20. Infinitives and Participles
  21. List of Conjunctions
  22. Coordinating Conjunctions
  23. Subordinating Conjunctions
  24. Correlative Conjunctions
  25. Simple Subject and Predicate
  26. Complete Subject and Predicate
  27. Substitutes for Parts of Speech
  28. Phrases
  29. Clauses
  30. Simple Sentence
  31. Compound Sentences
  32. Complex Sentences
  33. Compound Complex Sentence
  34. Subordinate Clause
  35. Dependent Clause
  36. Coordinate Clause
  37. Simple Sentences
  38. Compound Subject
  39. Compound Predicate
  40. Compound Sentences
  41. Clauses as Parts of Speech
  42. Complex Sentences
  43. Noun Clauses
  44. Substantive Clauses
  45. Adjective Clauses
  46. Adverbial Clauses
  47. The Sentence
  48. Declarative Sentence
  49. Interrogative Sentence
  50. Imperative Sentence
  51. Exclamatory Sentence
  52. Subject and Predicate
  53. The Parts of Speech
  54. Substantives
  55. Antecedent
  56. Modifiers
  57. Substitutes for the Parts of Speech
  58. Phrases
  59. Clauses
  60. Inflection
  61. Inflection and Syntax
  62. Declension
  63. Comparison
  64. Conjugation
  65. Nouns
  66. Classification of Nouns
  67. Common Nouns and Proper Nouns
  68. Conjunction
  69. Noun-Phrases
  70. Personification
  71. Common Nouns
  72. Proper Nouns
  73. Special Classes of Nouns
  74. Abstract Noun
  75. Collective Noun
  76. Compound Noun
  77. Inflection of Nouns
  78. Gender Based Nouns
  79. Masculine Gender
  80. Feminine Gender
  81. Neuter Gender
  82. Common Gender
  83. Neuter Noun
  84. Number Based Nouns
  85. Singular Nouns
  86. Plural Nouns
  87. Person Based Nouns
  88. First Person
  89. Second Person
  90. Third Person
  91. Case-Based Nouns
  92. Nominative Case
  93. Possessive Case
  94. Objective Case
  95. Genitive Case
  96. Declension of Nouns
  97. Predicate Nominative
  98. A Subject Complement
  99. An Attribute
  100. Intransitive Verbs
  101. Passive-Verbs
  102. Exclamatory Nominatives
  103. Nominative of Exclamation
  104. Apposition
  105. Adjective Modifier
  106. Possessive Case
  107. Forms of The Possessive Case
  108. Possessive Singular of Nouns ending in S
  109. Monosyllabic Nouns
  110. Use of The Possessive Case
  111. Objective Case
  112. Objective Case and Direct Object
  113. Direct Object
  114. Object Complement
  115. Object of The Verb
  116. Intransitive Verbs
  117. Predicate Nominative
  118. Predicate Objective
  119. Complementary Object
  120. Objective Attribute
  121. Complement
  122. Indirect Object and Similar Idioms
  123. Direct Object and Indirect Object
  124. Objective of Service
  125. Modifier of The Verb
  126. Cognate Object
  127. Cognate Object of The Verb
  128. Adverbial Modifier
  129. Adverbial Objective
  130. Adverbial Phrase
  131. Objective in Apposition
  132. Subject of An Infinitive
  133. Parsing
  134. Parse
  135. Pronouns
  136. Antecedent
  137. Demonstrative Pronouns
  138. Indefinite Pronouns
  139. Personal Pronouns
  140. The Pronoun of The First Person
  141. The Pronoun of The Second Person
  142. The Pronouns of The Third Person
  143. Case of Personal Pronouns
  144. Personal Pronouns and Nominative Case
  145. Nominative Constructions
  146. Personal Pronouns and Possessive Case
  147. Personal Pronouns and Objective Case
  148. Personal Pronouns and Genitive Case
  149. The Self-Pronouns
  150. Compound Personal Pronouns
  151. Intensive Pronouns
  152. Reflexive Pronouns
  153. Adjective Pronouns
  154. Demonstrative Pronouns
  155. Indefinite Pronouns
  156. Compound Pronouns
  157. Reciprocal Pronouns
  158. Indefinites
  159. Indefinite Nouns
  160. Personal Pronouns
  161. Relative Pronouns
  162. Connectives
  163. Adjective Modifier
  164. Restrictive Relatives
  165. Descriptive Relatives
  166. The Relative Pronoun WHAT
  167. Double Construction
  168. Compound Relative Pronouns
  169. Interrogative Pronouns
  170. Interrogative Adjectives
  171. Parsing Pronouns
  172. Adjectives
  173. Classification of Adjectives
  174. Descriptive Adjective
  175. Definitive Adjective
  176. Compound Adjectives
  177. Proper Adjective
  178. Numeral Adjectives
  179. Attributive Adjectives
  180. Appositive Adjectives
  181. Predicate Adjectives
  182. The Articles
  183. Definite Article
  184. Indefinite Articles
  185. Generic Article
  186. Comparison of Adjectives
  187. Inflection of Adjectives
  188. Degrees of Comparison
  189. Comparisons
  190. The Positive Degree of Comparison
  191. The Comparative Degree of Comparison
  192. The Superlative Degree of Comparison
  193. Rules of Spelling and Degrees of Comparison
  194. Irregular Comparison
  195. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives
  196. Adverb
  197. Classification of Adverbs
  198. Adverbs of Manner
  199. Adverbs of Time
  200. Adverbs of Place
  201. Adverbs of Degree
  202. Inverted Order
  203. An Expletive
  204. Relative Adverbs
  205. Interrogative Adverbs
  206. Conjunctive Adverbs
  207. Comparison of Adverbs
  208. Classification of Adverbs
  209. Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs
  210. The Positive Adverbs
  211. The Comparative Adverbs
  212. The Superlative Adverbs
  213. Use of The Comparative Adverbs
  214. Use of The Superlative Adverbs
  215. Numerals
  216. Numerals and Adjectives
  217. Numerals and Nouns
  218. Numerals and Adverbs
  219. Cardinals and Ordinals
  220. Numeral Adjectives
  221. Numeral Adverbs
  222. Adverbial Phrases
  223. Verbs
  224. Classification of Verbs
  225. Verb-Phrase
  226. Auxiliary Verbs
  227. Transitive Verbs
  228. Intransitive Verbs
  229. Copulative Verbs
  230. Inflection of Verbs
  231. Inflections of Tense
  232. Verb-Phrases
  233. Tense of Verbs
  234. Simple Tenses
  235. Forms of The Present
  236. Forms of The Past
  237. Present Tense
  238. Past Tense
  239. Future Tense
  240. Weak Verbs
  241. Strong Verbs
  242. Regular Verbs
  243. Irregular Verbs
  244. Verb with Person and Number
  245. Inflections of Person and Number in Verbs
  246. Personal Endings
  247. Conjugation of The Present and The Past
  248. Conjugation
  249. Conjugation of The Weak Verb
  250. Conjugation of The Strong Verb
  251. Conjugation of The Copula
  252. Special Rules of Number and Person
  253. Compound Subject
  254. Collective Nouns
  255. Relative Pronoun
  256. The Future Tense
  257. Future Tense in Assertive Sentences
  258. Future Tense in Declarative Sentences
  259. Future Tense in Interrogative Sentences
  260. Simple Futurity
  261. Future Tense
  262. Verb-Phrase denoting Willingness
  263. Complete Tenses
  264. Compound Tenses
  265. The Perfect Complete Tenses
  266. The Perfect Compound Tenses
  267. The Present Perfect Complete Tenses
  268. The Present Perfect Compound Tenses
  269. The Pluperfect Complete Tenses
  270. The Pluperfect Compound Tenses
  271. The Past Perfect Complete Tenses
  272. The Past Perfect Compound Tenses
  273. The Future Perfect Complete Tenses
  274. The Future Perfect Compound Tenses
  275. The Perfect Infinitive
  276. The Principal Parts
  277. Voice
  278. Voices
  279. Active Voice
  280. Passive Voice
  281. The Passive of The Infinitive
  282. Present Infinitive Passive
  283. Perfect Infinitive Passive
  284. Active Voice and Present Tense
  285. Active Voice and Past Tense
  286. Active Voice and Future Tense
  287. Active Voice and Perfect Tense
  288. Active Voice and Present Perfect Tense
  289. Active Voice and Pluperfect Tense
  290. Active Voice and Past Perfect Tense
  291. Active Voice and Future Perfect Tense
  292. Passive Voice and Present Tense
  293. Passive Voice and Past Tense
  294. Passive Voice and Future Tense
  295. Passive Voice and Perfect Tense
  296. Passive Voice and Present Perfect Tense
  297. Passive Voice and Pluperfect Tense
  298. Passive Voice and Past Perfect Tense
  299. Passive Voice and Future Perfect Tense
  300. Uses of The Passive Voice
  301. Intransitive Verbs and Passive Voice
  302. Predicate Objective
  303. Predicate Nominative
  304. Direct Object
  305. Object of The Passive Voice
  306. Retained Object
  307. Progressive Verb-Phrases
  308. Progressive Forms
  309. Emphatic Verb-Phrases
  310. Mood of Verbs
  311. The Indicative Mood
  312. The Imperative Mood
  313. The Subjunctive Mood
  314. Indicative Mood
  315. Imperative Mood
  316. The Imperative Active
  317. The Imperative Passive
  318. Prohibition
  319. Negative Command
  320. Subjunctive Mood
  321. Subjunctive Forms
  322. Forms of The Subjunctive
  323. Subjunctive Mood and Present Tense
  324. Subjunctive Mood and Past Tense
  325. Subjunctive Mood and Perfect Tense
  326. Subjunctive Mood and Present Perfect Tense
  327. Subjunctive Mood and Pluperfect Tense
  328. Subjunctive Mood and Past Perfect Tense
  329. The Subjunctive Active
  330. The Subjunctive Passive
  331. Uses of The Subjunctive Mood
  332. Subjunctive in Wishes and Exhortations Mood
  333. Exhortations
  334. Subjunctives in Concessions and Conditions
  335. Subjunctives in Concessions
  336. Subjunctives in Conditions
  337. Past Subjunctive
  338. Potential Verb-Phrases
  339. Potential Phrases
  340. Phrases of Possibility
  341. Use of Modal Auxiliaries
  342. Modal Auxiliaries
  343. The Potential Mood
  344. Modal Auxiliaries and Active Voice
  345. Modal Auxiliaries and Passive Voice
  346. Special Rules for Should and Would
  347. Should and Would in Simple Sentences
  348. Should and Would in Independent Clauses
  349. How to Use Would?
  350. Where to Use Should?
  351. Where to Use Would?
  352. How to Use Should?
  353. Should and Would in Subordinate Clauses
  354. Future Supposed Case
  355. Conditional Clauses
  356. Concessive Clauses
  357. Subordinate Clauses
  358. Favorite English Words
  359. The Infinitive
  360. The Sign of The Infinitive
  361. The Present Infinitive
  362. The Perfect Infinitive
  363. An Adverbial Phrase
  364. An Adverbial Clause
  365. Infinitive Clause
  366. Adjective Modifier
  367. Adverbial Modifier
  368. The Infinitive as Noun
  369. Predicate Nominative
  370. Nominative of Exclamation
  371. Appositive
  372. Object of Prepositions
  373. The Infinitive as A Modifier
  374. Present Infinitive
  375. Adjective Modifier of A Noun
  376. Adverbial Modifier of An Adjective
  377. Complementary Infinitive
  378. Infinitive of Purpose
  379. The Infinitive Clause
  380. Predicate Pronoun
  381. Predicate Nominative
  382. Participles
  383. Participle
  384. Forms of Participles
  385. Past Participle
  386. Present Participle
  387. Perfect Participle
  388. Constructions of Participles
  389. Participial Phrase
  390. Predicate Adjective
  391. Passive of Verbs
  392. Nominative Absolute
  393. Absolute Construction
  394. Adverbial Modifying Phrase
  395. Verbal Nouns in ING
  396. Participial Nouns
  397. Verbal Noun-Phrases
  398. Prepositional Phrase
  399. Preposition
  400. Prepositions
  401. Object
  402. Objective Case
  403. Prepositional Phrase
  404. Adjective Phrase
  405. Adverbial Phrase
  406. Compound Prepositions
  407. The Objects of Prepositions
  408. Conjunction
  409. Conjunctions
  410. Coordinate Conjunction
  411. Coordinate Clauses
  412. Subordinate Clause
  413. Compound Subordinate Clause
  414. Subordinate Conjunction
  415. Correlative Conjunctions
  416. Relative Adverbs
  417. Conjunctive Adverbs
  418. English words mispronounced by non-native English speakers
  419. Interjection
  420. Interjections
  421. Independent Elements of A Sentence
  422. Elliptical Sentences
  423. Elliptical Sentences
  424. Exclamatory Phrases
  425. Exclamatory Expressions
  426. Clauses as Parts of Speech
  427. Subordinate Clause
  428. Substantive Clauses
  429. Interrogative Pronoun
  430. Relative Pronoun
  431. Relative Adverb
  432. Interrogative Adverb
  433. Subordinate Conjunction
  434. Adjective Clause
  435. Adverbial Clauses
  436. Noun Clauses
  437. The Meanings of Subordinate Clauses
  438. Clauses of Place and Time
  439. Adjective Clauses
  440. Adverbial Clauses
  441. Adjective Clauses of Place and Time
  442. Adverbial Clauses of Place and Time
  443. Clauses of Time
  444. Clauses of Place
  445. Causal Clauses
  446. Clauses of Cause
  447. Clauses of Concession
  448. Concessive Clauses
  449. Clauses of Purpose and Result
  450. Clauses of Purpose
  451. Clauses of Result
  452. Clause of Purpose
  453. Negative Clauses of Purpose
  454. Clause of Result
  455. Substantive Clause of Purpose
  456. Conditional Sentences
  457. Conditional Clause
  458. Clause of Condition
  459. Protasis
  460. Apodosis
  461. Independent Coordinate Clauses
  462. Forms of Conditions
  463. Forms of Conditional Sentences
  464. Present Conditional Sentences
  465. Present Conditional Non-Committal Sentences
  466. Past Conditional Sentences
  467. Past Conditional Non-Committal Sentences
  468. Future Conditional Sentences
  469. Clauses of Comparison
  470. Clauses of Indirect Discourse
  471. Sentences of Indirect Discourse
  472. Clauses of Direct Quotation
  473. Sentences of Direct Quotation
  474. Clauses of Indirect Quotation
  475. Sentences of Indirect Quotation
  476. Indirect Questions
  477. Direct Questions
  478. Subordinate Clauses of Indirect Questions
  479. Clauses of Indirect Questions
  480. The Structure of Sentences
  481. Analysis of Sentences
  482. The Simple Subject
  483. The Simple Predicate
  484. Modifiers and Complements
  485. Direct Object
  486. Predicate Objective
  487. Predicate Adjective
  488. Predicate Nominative
  489. Simple Sentences
  490. Simple Sentence
  491. Compound Subject
  492. Compound Predicate
  493. Words Pronounced by Indians
  494. Compound Sentences
  495. Compound Sentence
  496. Complex Sentences
  497. Complex Sentence
  498. Compound and Complex Clauses
  499. Compound Adjective Clause
  500. Coordinate Adjective Clauses
  501. Compound Adverbial Clause
  502. Compound Complex Sentences
  503. Compound Complex Sentence
  504. Analysis of Sentences
  505. Analysis of Simple Sentences
  506. Analysis of Compound Sentences
  507. Analysis of Complex Sentences
  508. Analysis of Compound Complex Sentences
  509. Modifier
  510. Modifiers
  511. Modifiers and Complements
  512. Adjective Modifiers
  513. Adverbial Modifiers
  514. Adjective Phrase
  515. Adjective Clause
  516. Adverbial Phrase
  517. Adverbial Clause
  518. Modifiers of The Subject
  519. Adjectives as Modifiers of The Subject
  520. Adjective Phrases as Modifiers of The Subject
  521. Adjective Clauses as Modifiers of The Subject
  522. Relative Pronouns as Modifiers of The Subject
  523. Relative Adverbs as Modifiers of The Subject
  524. Participles as Modifiers of The Subject
  525. Infinitives as Modifiers of The Subject
  526. Possessives as Modifiers of The Subject
  527. Possessive Modifier
  528. Appositives as Modifiers of The Subject
  529. Substantive in Apposition
  530. Appositive Adjective
  531. Modifiers of The Predicate
  532. Predicate Modifiers
  533. Adverbs as Modifiers of The Predicate
  534. Adverbial Phrases as Modifiers of The Predicate
  535. Adverbial Clauses as Modifiers of The Predicate
  536. Infinitives as Modifiers of The Predicate
  537. Adverbial Objectives as Modifiers of The Predicate
  538. Nominative Absolute as Modifier of The Predicate
  539. Indirect Objects as Modifiers of The Predicate
  540. Cognate Objects as Modifiers of The Predicate
  541. Complements
  542. Complete Verbs
  543. Verbs of Complete Predication
  544. Incomplete Verbs
  545. Verbs of Incomplete Predication
  546. The Direct Object
  547. Transitive Verbs
  548. Intransitive Verbs
  549. Object Complement
  550. Object of The Verb
  551. The Predicate Objective
  552. The Complementary Object
  553. The Objective Attribute
  554. Predicate Nominative
  555. The Predicate Nominative
  556. Subject Complement
  557. An Attribute
  558. The Predicate Adjective
  559. Modifiers of Complements
  560. Modifiers of Modifiers
  561. Complements Modified
  562. Adjective Complement
  563. Adverbial Modifiers
  564. Substantive Complements
  565. Modifiers of Other Modifiers
  566. Modifiers of Modifiers
  567. Modifiers and Adjectives
  568. Modifiers and Adjective Phrases
  569. Modifiers and Possessive
  570. Modifiers and Appositives
  571. Modifiers and Adverbs
  572. Modifiers and Adverbial Phrases
  573. Adjective and Infinitive
  574. Modifiers and Adverbial Clauses
  575. Independent Elements
  576. Interjections
  577. Vocatives
  578. Nominatives by Direct Address
  579. Exclamatory Nominatives
  580. Parenthetical Expressions
  581. Combinations of Clauses
  582. General Principles for Combinations of Clauses
  583. Coordination and Subordination
  584. Compound Subordinate Clause
  585. Compound Noun Clause
  586. Compound Adjective Clause
  587. Compound Adverbial Clause
  588. Simple Sentences
  589. Simple Sentence with Compound Predicate
  590. Compound Sentence



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